Unveiling Hidden Districts: Assessing the Adoption Patterns of Business Improvement Districts in California
I use the results of a survey on the adoption patterns of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in the state of California to begin filling a gap in our understanding of the role and prominence of the broader class of special assessment districts. A BID is formed when a majority of merchants or property owners in a commercial neighborhood votes in favor of a package of local taxes and expenditures; once passed, assessments are legally binding on all members of the commercial neighborhood. I find that roughly half of all larger cities in California have at least one BID; among the universe of cities in four Southern California counties, that figure falls to about one–fifth. I combine the survey data with demographic, institutional and political data and find that BID adoption modestly increases in residential heterogeneity and more strongly decreases in a city's year of incorporation, which I interpret as a measure of the importance of the collective action problem in older commercial neighborhoods.
Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Fax: (202) 737-7308
Web page: http://www.ntanet.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Alesina, Alberto & Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William, 1999.
"Public goods and ethnic divisions,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2108, The World Bank.
- Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William & Alesina, Alberto, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," Scholarly Articles 4551797, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1997. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," NBER Working Papers 6009, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James M. Poterba, 1997.
"Demographic structure and the political economy of public education,"
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 48-66.
- James M. Poterba, 1996. "Demographic Structure and the Political Economy of Public Education," NBER Working Papers 5677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Helsley, Robert W. & Strange, William C., 1999. "Gated Communities and the Economic Geography of Crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 80-105, July.
- Epple, Dennis & Romano, Richard E, 1996. "Public Provision of Private Goods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 57-84, February.
- Nora Gordon & Brian Knight, 2006. "The Causes of Political Integration: An Application to School Districts," NBER Working Papers 12047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Leah Brooks, 2006.
"Volunteering To Be Taxed: Business Improvement Districts And The Extra-Governmental Provision Of Public Safety,"
Departmental Working Papers
2006-04, McGill University, Department of Economics.
- Brooks, Leah, 2008. "Volunteering to be taxed: Business improvement districts and the extra-governmental provision of public safety," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 388-406, February.
- Eric D. Gould & B. Peter Pashigian & Canice J. Prendergast, 2005.
"Contracts, Externalities, and Incentives in Shopping Malls,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 411-422, August.
- Gould, Eric D & Pashigian, B. Peter & Prendergast, Canice, 2002. "Contracts, Externalities and Incentives in Shopping Malls," CEPR Discussion Papers 3598, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- repec:hrv:faseco:4553034 is not listed on IDEAS
- Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2000.
"Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities,"
NBER Working Papers
7859, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2004. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 348-396, April.
- Hoxby, Caroline & Baqir, Reza & Alesina, Alberto, 2004. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Scholarly Articles 4552532, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2002. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1949, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Leah Brooks, 2006. "Does Spatial Variation in Heterogeneity Matter? Assessing the Adoption Patterns of Business Improvement Districts," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 23(6), pages 1219-1234, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ntj:journl:v:60:y:2007:i:1:p:5-24. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Charmaine Wright)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.