Unveiling Hidden Districts: Assessing the Adoption Patterns of Business Improvement Districts in California
I use the results of a survey on the adoption patterns of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in the state of California to begin filling a gap in our understanding of the role and prominence of the broader class of special assessment districts. A BID is formed when a majority of merchants or property owners in a commercial neighborhood votes in favor of a package of local taxes and expenditures; once passed, assessments are legally binding on all members of the commercial neighborhood. I find that roughly half of all larger cities in California have at least one BID; among the universe of cities in four Southern California counties, that figure falls to about one–fifth. I combine the survey data with demographic, institutional and political data and find that BID adoption modestly increases in residential heterogeneity and more strongly decreases in a city's year of incorporation, which I interpret as a measure of the importance of the collective action problem in older commercial neighborhoods.
Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 725 15th St. NW #600. Washington, D.C. 20005-2109|
Fax: (202) 737-7308
Web page: http://www.ntanet.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Leah Brooks, 2006. "Does Spatial Variation in Heterogeneity Matter? Assessing the Adoption Patterns of Business Improvement Districts," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 23(6), pages 1219-1234, November.
- James M. Poterba, 1996.
"Demographic Structure and the Political Economy of Public Education,"
NBER Working Papers
5677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James M. Poterba, 1997. "Demographic structure and the political economy of public education," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 48-66.
- Epple, Dennis & Romano, Richard E, 1996. "Public Provision of Private Goods," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 57-84, February.
- Hoxby, Caroline & Baqir, Reza & Alesina, Alberto, 2004.
"Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities,"
4552532, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2004. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 348-396, April.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2002. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1949, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & Caroline Hoxby, 2000. "Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities," NBER Working Papers 7859, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1997.
"Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions,"
NBER Working Papers
6009, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William & Alesina, Alberto, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," Scholarly Articles 4551797, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alesina, Alberto & Baqir, Reza & Easterly, William, 1999. "Public goods and ethnic divisions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2108, The World Bank.
- Eric D. Gould & B. Peter Pashigian & Canice J. Prendergast, 2005.
"Contracts, Externalities, and Incentives in Shopping Malls,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 411-422, August.
- Gould, Eric D & Pashigian, B. Peter & Prendergast, Canice, 2002. "Contracts, Externalities and Incentives in Shopping Malls," CEPR Discussion Papers 3598, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Brooks, Leah, 2008.
"Volunteering to be taxed: Business improvement districts and the extra-governmental provision of public safety,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 388-406, February.
- Leah Brooks, 2006. "Volunteering To Be Taxed: Business Improvement Districts And The Extra-Governmental Provision Of Public Safety," Departmental Working Papers 2006-04, McGill University, Department of Economics.
- Nora Gordon & Brian Knight, 2006. "The Causes of Political Integration: An Application to School Districts," NBER Working Papers 12047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Helsley, Robert W. & Strange, William C., 1999. "Gated Communities and the Economic Geography of Crime," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 80-105, July.
- Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
- repec:hrv:faseco:4553034 is not listed on IDEAS
- Alberto Alesina & Reza Baqir & William Easterly, 1999. "Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1243-1284.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ntj:journl:v:60:y:2007:i:1:p:5-24. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Charmaine Wright)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.