IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/kob/dpaper/dp2016-29.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Asia's Rural-urban Disparity in the Context of Growing Inequality

Author

Listed:
  • Katsushi S. Imai

    (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan and School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK)

  • Bilal Malaeb

    (Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford, UK)

Abstract

This study offers empirical evidence on the rural-urban gap in the context of growing inequality in Asia. First, China and India explain the trends of regional inequality given their large population, signifying their importance as major contributors. Overall, China’s income inequality is characterised by rural-urban disparity, but the inequality within-rural and/or within urban areas has worsened, although it experienced very high economic growth. India is mainly characterised by high inequality within urban areas despite a sharp reduction in urban poverty. Rural-urban income gap has narrowed in recent years. We also find that the rural and urban income gap has narrowed in many countries, such as, India, Vietnam and Thailand. Second, our econometric results on the agricultural and non-agricultural income gap suggest that higher non-agricultural growth rate tends to widen the urban-rural gap over time, while agricultural growth is unrelated to the rural-urban gap. Third, the rural-urban human resources gaps in terms of educational attainment have increased in both India and China. Fourth, remittances are likely to reduce poverty in many countries. Policies which would promote agricultural growth and rural education are deemed important not only for reducing rural poverty, but also for narrowing the rural-urban gap of human resources.

Suggested Citation

  • Katsushi S. Imai & Bilal Malaeb, 2016. "Asia's Rural-urban Disparity in the Context of Growing Inequality," Discussion Paper Series DP2016-29, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
  • Handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2016-29
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp/academic/ra/dp/English/DP2016-29.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2016
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dennis Tao Yang, 1999. "Urban-Biased Policies and Rising Income Inequality in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 306-310, May.
    2. Himanshu & Kunal Sen, 2014. "Revisiting the Great Indian Poverty Debate: Measurement, Patterns, and Determinants," Global Development Institute Working Paper Series 20314, GDI, The University of Manchester.
    3. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Garbero, Alessandra, 2017. "Poverty reduction during the rural–urban transformation: Rural development is still more important than urbanisation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 963-982.
    4. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Ali, Abdilahi & Kaicker, Nidhi, 2014. "Remittances, growth and poverty: New evidence from Asian countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 524-538.
    5. Kang, Woojin & Imai, Katsushi S., 2012. "Pro-poor growth, poverty and inequality in rural Vietnam," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 527-539.
    6. Zhang, Xiaobo & Rashid, Shahidur & Ahmad, Kaikaus & Mueller, Valerie & Lee, Hak Lim & Lemma, Solomon & Belal, Saika & Ahmed, Akhter U., 2013. "Rising wages in Bangladesh:," IFPRI discussion papers 1249, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. You, Jing & Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav, 2016. "Declining Nutrient Intake in a Growing China: Does Household Heterogeneity Matter?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 171-191.
    8. Zhong, Hai, 2011. "The impact of population aging on income inequality in developing countries: Evidence from rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 98-107, March.
    9. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Thapa, Ganesh, 2015. "Does non-farm sector employment reduce rural poverty and vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 47-61.
    10. Katsushi S. Imai & Jing You, 2014. "Poverty Dynamics of Households in Rural China," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 76(6), pages 898-923, December.
    11. Katsushi S. Imai & Takahiro Sato, 2014. "Recent Changes in Micro-Level Determinants of Fertility in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey Data," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 65-85, March.
    12. Amartya Lahiri & Viktoria Hnatkovska, 2014. "Structural Transformation and the Rural-Urban Divide," 2014 Meeting Papers 746, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Katsushi S. Imai & Raghav GAIHA & Wenya Cheng, 2015. "Does Agricultural Growth Reduce Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries?," Discussion Paper Series DP2015-23, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Apr 2016.
    14. Gaiha, Raghav & Jha, Raghbendra & Kulkarni, Vani S (ed.), 2014. "Diets, Malnutrition, and Disease: The Indian Experience," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198099215.
    15. Ha, Wei & Yi, Junjian & Yuan, Ye & Zhang, Junsen, 2016. "The dynamic effect of rural-to-urban migration on inequality in source villages: System GMM estimates from rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 27-39.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Vladimir Hlasny, 2017. "Different Faces of Inequality across Asia: Decomposition of Income Gaps across Demographic Groups," LIS Working papers 691, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Remittances; Migration; Growth; Poverty; Inequality; Asia;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2016-29. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Office of Promoting Research Collaboration, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/rikobjp.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.