Is Religion Associated with Entrepreneurial Activity?
This paper provides a quantitative investigation of the strength of the potential relationship between entrepreneurial activity and religious affiliation. The relationship between religion and economic development has attracted recent attention. A positive association may indicate that religion raises the social acceptability of entrepreneurial activity, by inculcating incentives to accumulate wealth and acquire personal responsibility, as well as providing social capital and may be particularly effective where state governance systems are weak. Institutionalist perspectives suggest that religious institutions may support definition of property rights. Economic benefits flow through reduced transactions costs. This paper engages these discussions in order to present a preliminary empirical investigation of the relationships which may exist across national boundaries between religion and entrepreneurship. Definitions of entrepreneurship are taken from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) studies for 2011 and 2012, focusing on the individual rather than on the business venture. Recent data on religious affiliation across countries are used to construct various measures of religious activity and diversity. Preliminary findings suggest, in particular, a significant association between GEM indicators and evangelical-pentecostal-charismatic Christian affiliation. The strength of these associations is offset by state regulation of religion. These findings suggest that attention needs to be paid to the potentially important role that certain forms of religion might play is providing a supportive cultural environment for entrepreneurship. They also suggest that policy-makers may wish to pay closer attention to the potentially supportive role that certain religious organizations might play in new business formation.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Davidsson, Per & Wiklund, Johan, 1997. "Values, beliefs and regional variations in new firm formation rates," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 179-199, April.
- David Audretsch, 2009.
"The entrepreneurial society,"
The Journal of Technology Transfer,
Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
- Anisya S Thomas & Stephen L Mueller, 2000. "A Case for Comparative Entrepreneurship: Assessing the Relevance of Culture," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(2), pages 287-301, June.
- Roger Koenker & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001.
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 143-156, Fall.
- Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales & Luigi Guiso, 2006.
"Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?,"
NBER Working Papers
11999, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Laurence R. Iannaccone, 1998. "Introduction to the Economics of Religion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1465-1495, September.
- Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson, 2005.
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(5), pages 949-995, October.
- Audretsch, David B & Bönte, Werner & Tamvada, Jagannadha Pawan, 2007.
"Religion and Entrepreneurship,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6378, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bloom, Nicholas & Sadun, Raffaella & Van Reenen, John, 2009.
"The Organization of Firms Across Countries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7338, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nick Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2009. "The organization of firms across countries," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 25481, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Nick Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2009. "The Organization of Firms Across Countries," CEP Discussion Papers dp0937, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Nicholas Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2009. "The organization of firms across countries," NBER Working Papers 15129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Poh Wong & Yuen Ho & Erkko Autio, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 335-350, 01.
- Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511.
- Shane, Scott, 1993. "Cultural influences on national rates of innovation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 59-73, January.
- McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Yang, Elena Ai-Yuan & Tsai, William, 1992. "Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 441-458, November.
- Wennekers, Sander & Thurik, Roy, 1999. " Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 27-55, August.
- Laurence R. Iannaccone, 1998. "Corrigenda [Introduction to the Economics of Religion]," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(4), pages 1941-1941, December.
- Nunziata, Luca & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2011. "The Implications of Cultural Background on Labour Market Choices: The Case of Religion and Entrepreneurship," IZA Discussion Papers 6114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kwon, Seok-Woo & Arenius, Pia, 2010. "Nations of entrepreneurs: A social capital perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 315-330, May.
- Zoltan Acs & David Storey, 2004. "Introduction: Entrepreneurship and Economic Development," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 871-877.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8111. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.