Inequality during the Early Years: Child Outcomes and Readiness to Learn in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States
This study of the emergence of inequality during the early years is based upon a comparative analysis of children at the age of about five years in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. We study a series of child outcomes related to readiness to learn, focusing on vocabulary development and externalizing behavior. Our major findings are three in number. First, significant inequalities in child capacities emerge even in these early years in all four countries but the disparities are notably greater in the United States and the United Kingdom than in Australia, and particularly in Canada. Second, large differences in cognitive outcomes exist in all countries between children from disadvantaged backgrounds and the mainstream and these are of similar magnitudes across countries. Differences across countries in the overall disparity between cognitive outcomes of the least and most advantaged, therefore, largely reflect variation in the degree to which children at the top of the SES distribution out-perform those in the middle. Third, disparities in social and behavioral development are markedly smaller than in cognitive outcomes and differ from cognitive outcomes in their association with SES across countries. While the smallest SES gaps are found in Australia and Canada for both types of outcome, differences in cognitive outcomes are greatest in the US, while differences in behavioral outcomes are greatest in the UK.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: John Ermisch, Markus Jantti, and Timothy Smeeding (editors). From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage. Russell Sage Foundation, 2012.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2010.
"Causes And Consequences Of Early Life Health,"
1213, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2011. "Causes And Consequences Of Early-Life Health," Working Papers 1287, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2010. "Causes And Consequences Of Early Life Health," Working Papers 1214, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2010. "Causes and Consequences of Early Life Health," NBER Working Papers 15637, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance, 2006.
"Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation,"
Handbook of the Economics of Education,
- Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance John & Masterov, Dimitriy V., 2005. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," IZA Discussion Papers 1675, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman & Lance Lochner & Dimitriy V. Masterov, 2005. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 11331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Corak, Miles & Curtis, Lori & Phipps, Shelley, 2010. "Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada," IZA Discussion Papers 4814, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- James Heckman & Pedro Carneiro, 2003.
"Human Capital Policy,"
NBER Working Papers
9495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Almond, Douglas & Currie, Janet, 2011.
"Human Capital Development before Age Five,"
Handbook of Labor Economics,
- Janet Currie & Mark Stabile, 2004.
"Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD,"
NBER Working Papers
10435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Currie, Janet & Stabile, Mark, 2006. "Child mental health and human capital accumulation: The case of ADHD," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1094-1118, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6120. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.