Evolution of Employment Protection Legislation in the USSR, CIS and Baltic States, 1985-2009
This paper presents and discusses new data on employment protection legislation (EPL) in the successor states of the former USSR – the CIS and Baltic states – over 25 years from 1985 to 2009. We use the OECD methodology (OECD EPL, version II) for assessing the strictness of national labor laws with respect to employers’ firing costs. In addition to the overall OECD EPL index, we present detailed statistics for 18(22) sub-indicators used for its computation. The new data allow us to make several important observations. In particular, the data do not support the widely held view that labor regulations in the former USSR with respect to firing costs were extremely rigid and were subsequently liberalized by the 15 successor states over the course of transition to a market economy. Rather, the dynamics of the EPL index in the region resembles an inverted U-shaped pattern with the peak of labor market rigidity occurring in the mid-1990s in the CIS countries and a decade later in the Baltic States. In terms of major sub-indicators, we observe a rather unusual pattern: gradual liberalization of permanent contracts on the background of increasing regulation of temporary contracts and collective dismissals. This is in sharp contrast with the OECD economies, where liberalization of temporary contracts has been the major trend in the recent decades. By now, the ex-USSR states as a group do not differ that much from the EU-15 and OECD countries in terms of the overall EPL index, although they differ considerably in terms of contributions to the overall EPL of its thee major components, namely, regulation of permanent contracts, temporary contracts, and collective dismissals. We also show that our EPL data are correlated with a number of variables characterizing economic development, progress in market-oriented reforms, and political regimes prevailing in the countries studied, which suggests potential of using the new dataset in further politico-economic research.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Per Skedinger, 2010. "Employment Protection Legislation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13686.
- James J. Heckman & Carmen Pagés, 2004.
"Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean,"
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number heck04-1.
- James Heckman & Carmen Pages, 2003. "Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean," NBER Working Papers 10129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ricardo Lagos, 2006.
"A model of TFP,"
345, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Djankov, Simeon & Ramalho, Rita, 2008.
"Employment Laws in Developing Countries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7097, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Eichhorst, Werner & Feil, Michael & Braun, Christoph, 2008.
"What have we learned? Assessing labor market institutions and indicators,"
IAB Discussion Paper
200822, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
- Eichhorst, Werner & Feil, Michael & Braun, Christoph, 2008. "What Have We Learned? Assessing Labor Market Institutions and Indicators," IZA Discussion Papers 3470, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Smirnykh, Larisa, 2005. "Labor leasing: economic theory, EU and Russia experience," MPRA Paper 21568, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Aziz Atamanov & Alexander Chubrik & Irina Denisova & Vladimir Dubrovskiy & Marina Kartseva & Irina Lukashova & Irina Makenbaeva & Magdalena Rokicka & Irina Sinitsina & Michael Tokmazishvili, 2008. "The Development Gap Between the CIS and EU," CASE Network Reports 0081, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
- Gimpelson, Vladimir & Kapeliushnikov, Rostislav & Lukiyanova, Anna, 2009.
"Employment Protection Legislation in Russia: Regional Enforcement and Labour Market Outcomes,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4484, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- V. Gimpelson & R. Kapeliushnikov & A. Lukiyanova, 2009. "Employment Protection Legislation in Russia: Regional Enforcement and Labour Market Outcomes," ESCIRRU Working Papers 11, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Addison, John T. & Teixeira, Paulino, 2001.
"The Economics of Employment Protection,"
IZA Discussion Papers
381, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Maja Micevska, 2004. "Unemployment and Labour Market Rigidities in Southeast Europe," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 49, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
- Beck, Thorsten & Clarke, George & Groff, Alberto & Keefer, Philip & Walsh, Patrick, 2000. "New tools and new tests in comparative political economy - the database of political institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2283, The World Bank.
- Mitra, Pradeep & Muravyev, Alexander & Schaffer, Mark E, 2008.
"Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes: Cross-Country and Time-Series Evidence from the BEEPS Surveys in Transition Economies,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3863, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pradeep Mitra & Alexander Muravyev & Mark E. Schaffer, 2008. "Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes: Cross-Country and Time-Series Evidence from the BEEPS Surveys in Transition Economies," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 847, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Pradeep Mitra & Alexander Muravyev & Mark E. Schaffer, 2008. "Convergence in institutions and market outcomes: Cross-country and time-series evidence from the BEEPS surveys in transition economies," CERT Discussion Papers 0809, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
- Michele Belot & Jan Boone & Jan van Ours, 2004.
"Welfare Improving Employment Protection,"
DEGIT Conference Papers
c009_004, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Hopenhayn, Hugo & Rogerson, Richard, 1993. "Job Turnover and Policy Evaluation: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(5), pages 915-938, October.
- Granick,David, 1987. "Job Rights in the Soviet Union," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521332958, December.
- Gregory, Paul R & Collier, Irwin L, Jr, 1988. "Unemployment in the Soviet Union: Evidence from the Soviet Interview Project," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 613-632, September.
- Giuseppe BERTOLA & Tito BOERI & Sandrine CAZES, 2000. "Employment protection in industrialized countries: The case for new indicators," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 139(1), pages 57-72, 03.
- Eamets, Raul & Masso, Jaan, 2004. "Labour Market Flexibility and Employment Protection Regulation in the Baltic States," IZA Discussion Papers 1147, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5365. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.