The Regulation of Migration in a Transition Economy: China’s Hukou System
Unlike most countries, China regulates internal migration. Public benefits, access to good quality housing, schools, health care, and attractive employment opportunities are available only to those who have local registration (Hukou). Coincident with the deepening of economic reforms, Hukou has gradually been relaxed since the 1980s, helping to explain an extraordinary surge of migration within China. In this study of interprovincial Chinese migration, we address two questions. First, what is a sensible way of incorporating Hukou into theoretical and empirical models of internal migration? Second, to what extent has Hukou influenced the scale and structure of migration? We incorporate two alternative measures of Hukou into a modified gravity model – the unregistered migrant' s: (i) perceived probability of securing Hukou; and (ii) perceived probability of securing employment opportunities available only to those with Hukou. In contrast to previous studies, our model includes a much wider variety of control especially important for the Chinese case. Analyzing the relationship between Hukou and migration using census data for 1985-90, 1995-2000 and 2000-05, we find that migration is very sensitive to Hukou, with the greatest sensitivity occurring during the middle period.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2009|
|Publication status:||published in: Contemporary Economic Policy, 2011, 29 (4), 564 - 579|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lin, Justin Y & Wang, Gewei & Zhao, Yaohui, 2004. "Regional Inequality and Labor Transfers in China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(3), pages 587-603, April.
- John Whalley & Shunming Zhang, 2004. "Inequality Change in China and (Hukou) Labour Mobility Restrictions," NBER Working Papers 10683, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Au, Chun-Chung & Henderson, J. Vernon, 2006.
"How migration restrictions limit agglomeration and productivity in China,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 350-388, August.
- Chun-Chung Au & Vernon Henderson, 2002. "How Migration Restrictions Limit Agglomeration and Productivity in China," NBER Working Papers 8707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Haizheng Li & Steven Zahniser, 2002. "The Determinants of Temporary Rural-to-Urban Migration in China," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(12), pages 2219-2235, November.
- Greenwood, Michael J, 1969. "An Analysis of the Determinants of Geographic Labor Mobility in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(2), pages 189-194, May.
- Zai Liang & Michael White, 1996. "Internal migration in China, 1950–1988," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(3), pages 375-384, August.
- Tabuchi, Takatoshi & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 2002. "Taste heterogeneity, labor mobility and economic geography," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 155-177, October.
- TABUCHI, Takatoshi & THISSE, Jacques-François, "undated". "Taste heterogeneity, labor mobility and economic geography," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1570, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- TABUCHI, Takatoshi & THISSE, Jacques-François, 2001. "Taste heterogeneity, labor mobility and economic geography," CORE Discussion Papers 2001044, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Tabuchi, Takatoshi & Thisse, Jacques-François, 2001. "Taste Heterogeneity, Labour Mobility and Economic Geography," CEPR Discussion Papers 3114, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Seeborg, Michael C. & Jin, Zhenhu & Zhu, Yiping, 2000. "The new rural-urban labor mobility in China: Causes and implications," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 39-56.
- Poncet, Sandra, 2006. "Provincial migration dynamics in China: Borders, costs and economic motivations," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 385-398, May.
- Aimin Chen & N. Edward Coulson, 2002. "Determinants of Urban Migration: Evidence from Chinese Cities," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(12), pages 2189-2197, November.
- Zai Liang, 2001. "The Age of Migration in China," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(3), pages 499-524.
- Daniel Goodkind & Loraine A. West, 2002. "China's Floating Population: Definitions, Data and Recent Findings," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(12), pages 2237-2250, November.
- Zai Liang & Yiu Por Chen & Yanmin Gu, 2002. "Rural Industrialisation and Internal Migration in China," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(12), pages 2175-2187, November. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)