How Migration Restrictions Limit Agglomeration and Productivity in China
China strongly restricts rural-rural, urban-urban, and rural-urban migration. The result which this paper documents is a surplus of labor in agriculture. However, the paper argues that these restrictions also lead to insufficient agglomeration of economic activity within both rural industrial and urban areas, with resulting first order losses in GDP. For urban areas the paper estimates a city productivity relationship, based on city GDP numbers for 1990-97. The effects of access, educational attainment, FDI, and public infrastructure on productivity are estimated. Worker productivity is shown to be an inverted U-shape function of city employment level, with the peak point shifting out as industrial composition moves from manufacturing to services. As far as we know this is the first paper to actually estimate the relationship between output per worker and city scale, as it varies with industrial composition. The majority of Chinese cities are shown to be potentially undersized - below the lower bound on the 95% confidence interval about the size where their output per worker peaks. The paper calculates the large gains from increased agglomeration in both the rural industrial and urban sectors. It also examines the effect of capital reallocations, where the rural sector is grossly undercapitalized.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Au, Chun-Chung and J. Vernon Henderson. "How Migration Restrictions Limit Agglomeration And Productivity In China," Journal of Development Economics, 2006, v80(1,Jun), 350-388.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lin, Justin Yifu, 1992. "Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 34-51, March.
- Jordan Rappaport, 1999.
"Why are population flows so persistent?,"
Research Working Paper
99-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
- Yang, Dennis T. & An, Mark Yuying, 1997.
"Human Capital, Entrereneurship, and Farm Household Earnings,"
97-03, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Yang, Dennis Tao & An, Mark Yuying, 2002. "Human capital, entrepreneurship, and farm household earnings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 65-88, June.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1996.
"On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation,"
9608001, EconWPA, revised 13 Jun 1997.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 2002. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(2), pages 281-316, April.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1998. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," NBER Working Papers 6529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Evenett, S. J. & Keller, W., 1994. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," Working papers 9713, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Wagner, Alfred, 1891.
"Marshall's Principles of Economics,"
History of Economic Thought Articles,
McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, vol. 5, pages 319-338.
- Giles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2003.
"Micro-Foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies,"
NBER Working Papers
9931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Duranton, Gilles & Puga, Diego, 2004. "Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 48, pages 2063-2117 Elsevier.
- J.V. Henderson, 1972.
"The Sizes and Types of Cities,"
75, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Putterman, Louis & Chiacu, Ana F., 1994. "Elasticities and factor weights for agricultural growth accounting: A look at the data for China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 191-204.
- Duncan Black & Vernon Henderson, 2003. "Urban evolution in the USA," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 343-372, October.
- Chun-Chung Au & Vernon Henderson, 2002.
"How Migration Restrictions Limit Agglomeration and Productivity in China,"
NBER Working Papers
8707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Au, Chun-Chung & Henderson, J. Vernon, 2006. "How migration restrictions limit agglomeration and productivity in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 350-388, August.
- Jordan Rappaport & Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2001. "The U.S. as a coastal nation," Research Working Paper RWP 01-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
- Mueser Peter R. & Graves Philip E., 1995. "Examining the Role of Economic Opportunity and Amenities in Explaining Population Redistribution," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 176-200, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8707. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.