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School Attendance of Children and the Work of Mothers: A Joint Multilevel Model for India

Author

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  • Francavilla, Francesca

    () (Policy Studies Institute)

  • Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

    () (University of Florence)

  • Grilli, Leonardo

    () (University of Florence)

Abstract

This paper investigates the determinants of school attendance of children and their mother’s working status when the mother decides how to allocate her time and that of her children. A multilevel random effects model is applied to study the mother’s participation and the schooling status of her children in a joint framework. Using the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) for India, we find that, controlling for many covariates among which wealth is the most powerful predictor, children of working mothers have a lower probability of attending school. This, together with the result that only illiterate and poor mothers with unskilled or unemployed partners have a high probability of working, points to the need for decent labour market opportunities for females. An implication of our findings is that any policy aiming both at enhancing women’s empowerment through labour and increasing children’s welfare should also target improvements in women’s conditions in the labour market.

Suggested Citation

  • Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2008. "School Attendance of Children and the Work of Mothers: A Joint Multilevel Model for India," IZA Discussion Papers 3531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3531
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Francesca Francavilla, 2007. "Do Family Planning Programmes Help Women’s Employment? The Case of Indian Mothers," CHILD Working Papers wp05_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    2. Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2002. "Does Increasing Women's Schooling Raise the Schooling of the Next Generation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 323-334, March.
    3. Alessandro Cigno, 2006. "A constitutional theory of the family," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 19(2), pages 259-283, June.
    4. Erik Plug, 2004. "Estimating the Effect of Mother's Schooling on Children's Schooling Using a Sample of Adoptees," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 358-368, March.
    5. Cochrane, Susan H & Guilkey, David K, 1995. "The Effects of Fertility Intentions and Access to Services on Contraceptive Use in Tunisia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(4), pages 779-804, July.
    6. Sophia Rabe-Hesketh & Anders Skrondal & Andrew Pickles, 2004. "GLLAMM Manual," U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series 1160, Berkeley Electronic Press.
    7. Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Francesca Francavilla, 2007. "The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers’ Work: The Case of India," CHILD Working Papers wp22_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    8. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    9. Deborah Degraff & Richard Bilsborrow & David Guilkey, 1997. "Community-level determinants of contraceptive use in the Philippines: A structural analysis," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 34(3), pages 385-398, August.
    10. Anders Skrondal & Sophia Rabe-Hesketh, 2007. "Latent Variable Modelling: A Survey," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 34(4), pages 712-745.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    women's work; random effects; children's schooling; India; household allocation of time;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

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