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Are Immigrants More Mobile Than Natives? Evidence from Germany

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  • Schündeln, Matthias

    (Goethe University Frankfurt)

Abstract

Low rates of internal migration in many European countries contribute to the persistence of significant regional labor market differences. To further our understanding of the underlying reasons I study internal migration in Germany, using the Mikrozensus, a very large sample of households living in Germany. The first contribution of this paper is to quantify the low mobility of the German population by estimating the unobserved cost of migration. I then focus on the differences between immigrants and natives, and start by presenting reduced-form econometric evidence for the hypothesis that immigrants, once they are in the country of destination, are more mobile than natives. Observable, individual-level characteristics can only explain part of this finding. To estimate differences in the responsiveness to labor market characteristics that are due to unobserved characteristics, I then estimate conditional logit models of the migration decision across the German federal states. I find significantly higher responsiveness to labor market differentials in the immigrant population than in the native population. Unobserved moving costs for immigrants are estimated to be only about 37% of this same cost for natives. The findings bear on the assessment of the economic impact of immigration, and the paper contributes to the current immigration-related policy debates that feature prominently in many European countries, and that likely will continue to be important in light of the ongoing EU expansion and the expected resulting east-west migration.

Suggested Citation

  • Schündeln, Matthias, 2007. "Are Immigrants More Mobile Than Natives? Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3226, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3226
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    Cited by:

    1. Braun, Sebastian & Kvasnicka, Michael, 2014. "Immigration and structural change: Evidence from post-war Germany," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 253-269.
    2. Peter Huber & Marian Fink & Thomas Horvath, 2020. "Data Sources on Migrants' Labour Market and Education Integration in Austria," WIFO Working Papers 613, WIFO.
    3. Belit Saka, 2012. "Internal Migration of Ethnic Minorities: Evidence from Western Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 495, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    4. Michael Landesmann & Sandra M. Leitner, 2015. "Labour Mobility of Migrants and Natives in the European Union: An Empirical Test of the 'Greasing of the Wheels’ Effect of Migrants," wiiw Working Papers 119, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    internal migration; immigrants; cost of migration; regional convergence; Germany;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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