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Entrepreneurship, Wealth, Liquidity Constraints and Start-up Costs

Author

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  • Fonseca, Raquel

    () (University of Québec at Montréal)

  • Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    () (HEC Montreal)

  • Sopraseuth, Thepthida

    () (University of Cergy-Pontoise)

Abstract

We study the effects of liquidity constraints and start-up costs on the relationship between wealth and the fraction of entrepreneurs in an economy. We develop a dynamic occupational choice model with endogenous wealth and entry into entrepreneurship. The model predicts that, with liquidity constraints, the probability of entering entrepreneurship is an increasing function of individual wealth while the introduction of start-up costs tends to flatten this relationship. The theoretical predictions can be tested on cross-sectional data with exogenous variation in liquidity constraints (e.g. access to credit) and business start-up costs. We use three highly comparable micro datasets (SHARE, ELSA and HRS) providing harmonized data on wealth and work status in 9 countries that characterized by very different levels of start-up costs and liquidity constraints. Our results support our theoretical predictions. While higher liquidity constraints yield a positive relationship with wealth profile for the fraction of workers in entrepreneurship, start-up costs weaken this relationship by depressing the marginal value of being an entrepreneur as a function of wealth. Countries with high start-up costs such as Italy, Spain and France have flatter wealth gradients.

Suggested Citation

  • Fonseca, Raquel & Michaud, Pierre-Carl & Sopraseuth, Thepthida, 2007. "Entrepreneurship, Wealth, Liquidity Constraints and Start-up Costs," IZA Discussion Papers 2874, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2874
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2006. "Entrepreneurship, Frictions, and Wealth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 835-870, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pontus Braunerhjelm & Sameeksha Desai & Johan Eklund, 2015. "Regulation, firm dynamics and entrepreneurship," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 1-11, August.
    2. Thomas Gries & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-29, January.
    3. Gries, Thomas & Naudé, Wim, 2011. "Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 216-224.
    4. repec:rss:jnljms:v6i7p4 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Grossmann, Volker & Strulik, Holger, 2010. "Should continued family firms face lower taxes than other estates?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 87-101, February.
    6. Naude, Wim, 2008. "Entrepreneurship in Economic Development," WIDER Working Paper Series 020, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Bryson, Alex & Dale-Olsen, Harald & Gulbrandsen, Trygve, 2016. "Family Ownership, Workplace Closure and the Recession," IZA Discussion Papers 9877, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Frijters, Paul & Kong, Tao Sherry & Meng, Xin, 2011. "Migrant Entrepreneurs and Credit Constraints under Labour Market Discrimination," IZA Discussion Papers 5967, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Robert W. Fairlie & Harry A. Krashinsky, 2012. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, And Entrepreneurship Revisited," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(2), pages 279-306, June.
    10. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz & Pierre Garello, 2014. "Tax structure and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 165-190, January.
    11. Raquel Fonseca Benito & Simon Lord, 2015. "Les déterminants du travail autonome au Québec et au Canada (1993-2010)," CIRANO Working Papers 2015s-45, CIRANO.
    12. Pelkmans, Jacques & Renda, Andrea, 2014. "Does EU regulation hinder or stimulate innovation?," CEPS Papers 9822, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    13. Gries, Thomas & Naude, Wim, 2009. "When to Start a New Firm?: Modelling the Timing of Novice and Serial Entrepreneurs," WIDER Working Paper Series 039, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Raquel Fonseca & Simon Lord, 2015. "Les déterminants du travail autonome au Québec et au Canada (1993-201," Cahiers de recherche 1517, Chaire de recherche Industrielle Alliance sur les enjeux économiques des changements démographiques.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    liquidity constraints; wealth; start-ups costs; entrepreneurship;

    JEL classification:

    • E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion

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