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Nonparametric Bounds on the Effect of Deductibles in Health Care Insurance on Doctor Visits – Swiss Evidence

Author

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  • Gerfin, Michael

    () (University of Bern)

  • Schellhorn, Martin

    () (University of Kiel)

Abstract

We evaluate the effect of the size of deductibles in the basic health insurance in Switzerland on the probability of a doctor visit. We employ nonparametric bounding techniques to minimise statistical assumptions. In order to tighten the bounds we consider three further assumptions: mean independence of an instrument, monotone treatment response, and monotone treatment selection. Under the first two assumptions we are able to bound the treatment effect of high deductibles compared to low deductibles below zero. Adding the third assumption allows to tighten the bounds further. We conclude that there is a negative treatment effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Gerfin, Michael & Schellhorn, Martin, 2005. "Nonparametric Bounds on the Effect of Deductibles in Health Care Insurance on Doctor Visits – Swiss Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 1616, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1616
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin Schellhorn, 2001. "The effect of variable health insurance deductibles on the demand for physician visits," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(5), pages 441-456.
    2. Manski, Charles F, 1990. "Nonparametric Bounds on Treatment Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 319-323, May.
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    6. Manning, Willard G, et al, 1987. "Health Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 251-277, June.
    7. Martin Schellhorn, 2004. "Wählbare Selbstbehalte in der Krankenversicherung der Schweiz: Nachfragesteuerung oder Selektion?," Diskussionsschriften dp0402, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    8. Arnaud Chevalier & Gauthier Lanot, 2004. "Monotonicity and the Roy Model," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(4), pages 560-567, July.
    9. Leu, Robert E. & Schellhorn, Martin, 2004. "The Evolution of Income-Related Inequalities in Health Care Utilization in Switzerland over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 1316, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    12. Charles F. Manski & John V. Pepper, 2000. "Monotone Instrumental Variables, with an Application to the Returns to Schooling," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(4), pages 997-1012, July.
    13. James J. Heckman & Edward J. Vytlacil, 2000. "Instrumental Variables, Selection Models, and Tight Bounds on the Average Treatment Effect," NBER Technical Working Papers 0259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. John V. Pepper, 2000. "The Intergenerational Transmission Of Welfare Receipt: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 472-488, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tsunao Okumura & Emiko Usui, 2014. "Concave‐monotone treatment response and monotone treatment selection: With an application to the returns to schooling," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 5, pages 175-194, March.
    2. Martin Huber & Giovanni Mellace, 2015. "Sharp Bounds on Causal Effects under Sample Selection," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 77(1), pages 129-151, February.
    3. Stefan Boes, 2009. "Bounds on Counterfactual Distributions Under Semi-Monotonicity Constraints," SOI - Working Papers 0920, Socioeconomic Institute - University of Zurich.
    4. Cygan-Rehm, Kamila & Kühnle, Daniel & Oberfichtner, Michael, 2017. "Bounding the Causal Effect of Unemployment on Mental Health: Nonparametric Evidence from Four Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 10652, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Jeremiah Richey, 2016. "An Odd Couple: Monotone Instrumental Variables and Binary Treatments," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(6), pages 1099-1110, June.
    6. repec:kap:ijhcfe:v:17:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10754-016-9195-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Nicolas Ziebarth, 2014. "Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 41-67, March.
    8. Trottmann, Maria & Zweifel, Peter & Beck, Konstantin, 2012. "Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: Which is more effective?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 231-242.
    9. Claudia Pütz & Christian Hagist, 2006. "Optional deductibles in social health insurance systems," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 7(4), pages 225-230, December.
    10. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander, 2012. "Essays on the identification of treatment effects with applications to the labor market," ISU General Staff Papers 201201010800003740, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    11. René Böheim & Thomas Leoni, 2014. "Firms' Sickness Costs and Workers' Sickness Absences," NBER Working Papers 20305, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Astrid Kiil, 2012. "Does employment-based private health insurance increase the use of covered health care services? A matching estimator approach," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 1-38, March.
    13. Marcel Bilger & Jean-Paul Chaze, 2008. "What Drives Individual Health Expenditure in Switzerland?," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 144(III), pages 337-358, September.
    14. Philipp Hafner & Jörg C. Mahlich, 2016. "Determinants of physician's office visits and potential effects of co-payments: evidence from Austria," International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(3), pages 192-203, July.
    15. K. P. M. Winssen & R. C. Kleef & W. P. M. M. Ven, 2017. "A voluntary deductible in health insurance: the more years you opt for it, the lower your premium?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 18(2), pages 209-226, March.
    16. Stefan Pichler & Jan Ruffner, 2016. "Does it really make a difference? Health care utilization with two high deductible health care plans," KOF Working papers 16-404, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    health insurance; bounds; treatment effects;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • I19 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Other

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