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Advertising, Brand Loyalty And Pricing

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  • Ioana Chioveanu

    () (Universidad de Alicante)

Abstract

I construct a model in which an oligopoly first invests in persuasive advertising in order to induce brand loyalty to consumers who would otherwise buy the cheapest alternative on the market, and then competes in prices. Despite ex-ante symmetry, at equilibrium, there is one firm which chooses a lower advertising level, while the remaining ones choose the same higher advertising. For the endogenous profile of advertising expenditure, there are a family of pricing equilibria with at least two firms randomizing on prices. The setting offers a way of modelling homogenous product markets where persuasive advertising creates subjective product differentiation and changes the nature of subsequent price competition. The pricing stage of the model can be regarded as a variant of the Model of Sales by Varian (1980) and the two stage game as a way to endogenize consumers heterogeneity raising a robustness question to Varian¿s symmetric setting.

Suggested Citation

  • Ioana Chioveanu, 2005. "Advertising, Brand Loyalty And Pricing," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-32, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  • Handle: RePEc:ivi:wpasad:2005-32
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    Cited by:

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    2. de Frutos, Maria-Angeles & Ornaghi, Carmine & Siotis, Georges, 2013. "Competition in the pharmaceutical industry: How do quality differences shape advertising strategies?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 268-285.
    3. Astorne-Figari, Carmen & López, José Joaquín & Yankelevich, Aleksandr, 2019. "Advertising for consideration," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 653-669.
    4. Il-Horn Hann & Kai-Lung Hui & Sang-Yong Tom Lee & Ivan P.L. Png, 2005. "Sales and Promotions: A More General Model," Industrial Organization 0508014, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Zhang, Jianqiang & Liang, Qi & Huang, Jian, 2016. "Forward advertising: A competitive analysis of new product preannouncement," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 3-12.
    6. David P. Myatt, 2019. "A Theory of Stable Price Dispersion," Economics Series Working Papers 873, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    7. Du, Shaofu & Wang, Lei & Hu, Li & Zhu, Yangguang, 2019. "Platform-led green advertising: Promote the best or promote by performance," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 115-131.
    8. Kfir Eliaz & Ran Spiegler, 2011. "Consideration Sets and Competitive Marketing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 235-262.
    9. Justine Hastings & Ali Hortaçsu & Chad Syverson, 2017. "Sales Force and Competition in Financial Product Markets: The Case of Mexico's Social Security Privatization," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 85(6), pages 1723-1761, November.
    10. Marco A. Haan & José L. Moraga‐González, 2011. "Advertising for Attention in a Consumer Search Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(552), pages 552-579, May.
    11. Il-Horn Hann & Kai-Lung Hui & Sang-Yong Tom Lee & Ivan Png, 2005. "Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance," Industrial Organization 0503009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Nadine Lindstädt & Oliver Budzinski, 2011. "Newspaper vs. Online Advertising – Is There a Niche for Newspapers in Modern Advertising Markets?," Working Papers 113/11, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics.
    13. Robert Schmidt, 2013. "Price competition and innovation in markets with brand loyalty," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 109(2), pages 147-173, June.
    14. Ran Spiegler, 2014. "Competitive Framing," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 35-58, August.
    15. Shelegia, Sandro & Wilson, Christopher, 2019. "A Generalized Model of Advertised Sales," CEPR Discussion Papers 14113, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Petkov, Vladimir, 2018. "A model of sales with differentiated and homogeneous goods," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 214-217.
    17. Kai A.Konrad, 2010. "Merger Profitability in Industries with Brand Portfolios and Loyal Customers," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 26, pages 5-26.
    18. Shelegia, Sandro & Wilson, Chris, 2016. "A Generalized Model of Sales," EconStor Preprints 147411, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    19. Astorne-Figari, Carmen & Yankelevich, Aleksandr, 2014. "Consumer search with asymmetric price sampling," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 331-333.
    20. Xia, Yu, 2011. "Competitive strategies and market segmentation for suppliers with substitutable products," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 210(2), pages 194-203, April.
    21. Régis Chenavaz & Sajjad M. Jasimuddin, 2017. "An analytical model of the relationship between product quality and advertising," Post-Print hal-01685892, HAL.
    22. Greg Taylor, 2020. "Competing Sales Channels," Economics Series Working Papers 843, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    23. Zhang, Xu & Goddard, Ellen W., 2010. "Analysis of Value-Added Meat Product Choice Behaviour by Canadian Households," Project Report Series 99703, University of Alberta, Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology.
    24. Lihao Lu & Qinglong Gou & Wansheng Tang & Jianxiong Zhang, 2016. "Joint pricing and advertising strategy with reference price effect," International Journal of Production Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(17), pages 5250-5270, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    oligopoly; advertising; price dispersion; brand loyalty;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • M37 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Advertising

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