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Advertising, Brand Loyalty and Pricing

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  • Ioana Chioveanu

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Abstract

I construct a model in which an oligopoly first invests in persuasive advertising in order to induce brand loyalty to consumers who would otherwise buy the cheapest alternative on the market, and then competes in prices. Despite ex-ante symmetry, at equilibrium, there is one firm which chooses a lower advertising level, while the remaining ones choose the same higher advertising. For the endogenous profile of advertising expenditure, there are a family of pricing equilibria with at least two firms randomizing on prices. The setting offers a way of modelling homogenous product markets where persuasive advertising creates subjective product differentiation and changes the nature of subsequent price competition. The pricing stage of the model can be regarded as a variant of the Model of Sales by Varian (1980) and the two stage game as a way to endogenize consumers heterogeneity raising a robustness question to Varian¿s symmetric setting.
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  • Ioana Chioveanu, 2005. "Advertising, Brand Loyalty and Pricing," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 639.05, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  • Handle: RePEc:aub:autbar:639.05
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. de Frutos, Maria-Angeles & Ornaghi, Carmine & Siotis, Georges, 2013. "Competition in the pharmaceutical industry: How do quality differences shape advertising strategies?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 268-285.
    2. Il-Horn Hann & Kai-Lung Hui & Sang-Yong Tom Lee & Ivan Png, 2005. "Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance," Industrial Organization 0503009, EconWPA.
    3. Sandro Shelegia & Chris M. Wilson, 2016. "A generalized model of sales," Economics Working Papers 1541, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    4. Nadine Lindstädt & Oliver Budzinski, 2011. "Newspaper vs. Online Advertising – Is There a Niche for Newspapers in Modern Advertising Markets?," Working Papers 113/11, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics.
    5. Marco A. Haan & José L. Moraga‐González, 2011. "Advertising for Attention in a Consumer Search Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(552), pages 552-579, May.
    6. Xia, Yu, 2011. "Competitive strategies and market segmentation for suppliers with substitutable products," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 210(2), pages 194-203, April.
    7. Kfir Eliaz & Ran Spiegler, 2011. "Consideration Sets and Competitive Marketing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 235-262.
    8. Ronayne, David, 2015. "Price Comparison Websites," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1056, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. Robert Schmidt, 2013. "Price competition and innovation in markets with brand loyalty," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 109(2), pages 147-173, June.
    10. Marco A. Haan & Jose Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, 2009. "Advertising for Attention in a Consumer Search Model," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-031/1, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Il-Horn Hann & Kai-Lung Hui & Sang-Yong Tom Lee & Ivan P.L. Png, 2005. "Sales and Promotions: A More General Model," Industrial Organization 0508014, EconWPA.
    12. David Ronayne & Greg Taylor, 2018. "Competing Sales Channels," Economics Series Working Papers 843, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    13. Kai A.Konrad, 2010. "Merger Profitability in Industries with Brand Portfolios and Loyal Customers," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 26, pages 5-26.
    14. Zhang, Xu & Goddard, Ellen W., 2010. "Analysis of Value-Added Meat Product Choice Behaviour by Canadian Households," Project Report Series 99703, University of Alberta, Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology.
    15. Zhang, Jianqiang & Liang, Qi & Huang, Jian, 2016. "Forward advertising: A competitive analysis of new product preannouncement," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 3-12.
    16. Astorne-Figari, Carmen & Yankelevich, Aleksandr, 2014. "Consumer search with asymmetric price sampling," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 331-333.
    17. Justine S. Hastings & Ali Hortaçsu & Chad Syverson, 2013. "Sales Force and Competition in Financial Product Markets: The Case Of Mexico’s Social Security Privatization," NBER Working Papers 18881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • M37 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Advertising

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