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North-South Customs Unions and International Capital Mobility


  • Eduardo Fernández-Arias


  • Mark M. Spiegel


This paper examines the implications of a North-South trade accord where investments in the Southern partner nation exhibit country risk. Our analysis demonstrates that North-South trade accords can serve as credibility-enhancing mechanisms that induce additional foreign capital inflows into Southern partner nations. The presence of sovereign risk changes the tradeoffs between trade creation and diversion, enhancing the potential for regional trade accords to increase the welfare of accord members.

Suggested Citation

  • Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Mark M. Spiegel, 1997. "North-South Customs Unions and International Capital Mobility," Research Department Publications 4060, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4060

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bagwell, Kyle & Staiger, Robert W, 1997. "Multilateral Tariff Cooperation during the Formation of Free Trade Areas," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(2), pages 291-319, May.
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    4. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Jeffrey J. Schott, 1992. "North American Free Trade: Issues and Recommendations," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 71, January.
    5. Jaime De Melo & Arvind Panagariya & Dani Rodrik, 2015. "The New Regionalism: A Country Perspective," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 14, pages 323-357 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1995. "The Politics of Free-Trade Agreements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 667-690, September.
    7. Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1989. "Sovereign Debt: Is to Forgive to Forget?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 43-50, March.
    8. Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1989. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(1), pages 155-178, February.
    9. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Jeffrey J. Schott, 1993. "NAFTA: An Assessment, Revised Edition," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 70, January.
    10. Miyagiwa, Kaz F. & Young, Leslie, 1986. "International capital mobility and commercial policy in an economic region," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3-4), pages 329-341, May.
    11. Cole, Harold L. & English, William B., 1991. "Expropriation and direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3-4), pages 201-227, May.
    12. Carlo Perroni & John Whalley, 2000. "The new regionalism: trade liberalization or insurance?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(1), pages 1-24, February.
    13. McLaren, John, 1997. "Size, Sunk Costs, and Judge Bowker's Objection to Free Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 400-420, June.
    14. Joyce Manchester & Warwick Mckibbin, 1995. "The global macroeconomics of NAFTA," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 203-223, July.
    15. Safadi, Raed & Yeats, Alexander, 1993. "The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) : its effect on South Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1119, The World Bank.
    16. Raquel Fernandez, 1997. "Returns to Regionalism: An Evaluation of Non-Traditional Gains from RTAs," NBER Working Papers 5970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ayça Tekin-Koru & Andreas Waldkirch, 2010. "North-South Integration and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 696-713, September.
    2. Tekin-Koru, Ayca & Waldkirch, Andreas, 2007. "North American Integration and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment," MPRA Paper 5212, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Waldkirch, Andreas, 2006. "The ‘New Regionalism’: Integration as a Commitment Device for Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 21, pages 397-425.
    4. Dieter M. Urban, 2006. "Multilateral Investment Agreement in a Political Equilibrium," CESifo Working Paper Series 1830, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Goohoon Kwon & Raphael A Espinoza, 2009. "Regional Financial Integration in the Caribbean; Evidence From Financial and Macroeconomic Data," IMF Working Papers 09/139, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Popa, Ana & Oprunenco, Alex & Lücke, Matthias & Tekce, Mahmut & Eugen, Hristev & Mincu, Georgeta & Vasilescu, Victoria & Prohnitchi, Valeriu, 2009. "A free trade area between the Repbulic of Moldova and the European Union: feasibility, perspectives and potential impact," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 28899, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

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    JEL classification:

    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements


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