The New Regionalism: Trade Liberalization or Insurance?
Several of the recently negotiated regional trade agreements (Canada-U.S., NAFTA, E.C.-Hungary/Poland/Czeck and Slovak Republics) contain significantly fewer concessions by the large countries to smaller countries than vice versa. Yet, it is small countries that have sought them and see themselves as the main beneficiaries. In this paper we attempt to resolve this seeming paradox by interpreting such agreements as insurance arrangements for smaller countries, which partially protect them against the consequences of a global trade war. What they offer to the large countries in return is largely non-trade benefits (such as restraints on domestic policies in the smaller countries, firmer intellectual property protection, firmer guarantees of royalty arrangements affecting resources on state-owned lands). When evaluated alongside the regional trade arrangements of the 1960s (such as the E.C.), these agreements may appear to produce little or no benefit relative to the status quo for smaller countries; but when evaluated relative to a post-retaliation tariff equilibrium, the value of these agreements to small countries is large because they help preserve existing access to larger foreign markets. There is little incentive for large countries to negotiate such arrangements without side payments of the non-trade variety, because these agreements constrain their ability to play strategically against smaller neighbouring countries (who are still important trade partners) in a trade war. Such regional agreements compared across constrained and unconstrained Nash outcomes will typically be welfare worsening for large countries, and side payments are needed for the
|Date of creation:||Jan 1994|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Perroni, Carlo and John Whalley. "The New Regionalism: Trade Liberalization Or Insurance?," Canadian Journal of Economics, 2000, v33(1,Feb), 1-24.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John Kennan & Raymond Riezman, 2013.
"Optimal Tariff Equilibria with Customs Unions,"
World Scientific Book Chapters,
in: International Trade Agreements and Political Economy, chapter 5, pages 53-66
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Thursby, Jerry G & Thursby, Marie C, 1984. "How Reliable Are Simple, Single Equation Specifications of Import Demand?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 120-28, February.
- Adams, F Gerard & Junz, Helen B, 1971. "The Effect of the Business Cycle on Trade Flows of Industrial Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 251-68, May.
- Markusen, James R & Wigle, Randall M, 1989. "Nash Equilibrium Tariffs for the United States and Canada: The Roles of Country Size, Scale Economies, and Capital Mobility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(2), pages 368-86, April.
- Alan Bollard & David Mayes, 1992. "Regionalism and the Pacific Rim," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(2), pages 195-210, 06.
- Jon D. Haveman, 1996. "Some Welfare Effects of Sequential Customs Union Formation," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 941-58, November.
- repec:fth:wilfau:91151 is not listed on IDEAS
- Kyle Bagwell & Robert W. Staiger, 1993.
"Multilateral Tarriff Cooperation During the Formation of Regional Free Trade Areas,"
NBER Working Papers
4364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kyle Bagwell & Robert Staiger, 1994. "Multilateral Tariff Cooperation During the Formation of Regional Free Trade Areas," International Trade 9410001, EconWPA.
- Bagwell, K. & Staiger, R.W., 1994. "Multilateral Tariff Cooperation During the Formation of Regional Free Trade Areas," Working papers 9403, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- André Sapir, 1993.
"Regionalism and the New Theory of International Trade: Do the Bells Toll for the GATT? A European Outlook,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 423-438, 07.
- André Sapir, 1993. "Regionalism and the new theory of international trade: do the bells toll for the GATT? A European outlook," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8190, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Warner, Dennis & Kreinin, Mordechai E, 1983. "Determinants of International Trade Flows," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(1), pages 96-104, February.
- Bagwell, Kyle & Staiger, Robert W, 1997.
"Multilateral Tariff Cooperation during the Formation of Free Trade Areas,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(2), pages 291-319, May.
- Kyle Bagwell & Robert W. Staiger, 1993. "Multilateral Tariff Cooperation During the Formation of Free Trade Areas," Discussion Papers 1048, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Trien T. Nguyen & Carlo Perroni & Randall M. Wigle, 1991.
"The Value of a Uruguay Round Success,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(4), pages 359-374, December.
- L. Alan. Winters, 1992.
"Goals and Own Goals in European Trade Policy,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(5), pages 557-574, 09.
- Hamilton, Bob & Whalley, John, 1983. "Optimal tariff calculations in alternative trade models and some possible implications for current world trading arrangements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3-4), pages 323-348, November.
- Gatsios, Konstantine & Karp, Larry, 1991.
"Delegation Games in Customs Unions,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 391-97, April.
- Houthakker, Hendrik S & Magee, Stephen P, 1969. "Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(2), pages 111-25, May.
- Clinton R. Shiells & Kenneth A. Reinert, 1993. "Armington Models and Terms-of-Trade Effects: Some Econometric Evidence for North America," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 299-316, May.
- John Whalley, 1984. "Trade Liberalization among Major World Trading Areas," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262231204, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4626. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.