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Social Exclusion of Nicaraguans in the Urban Metropolitan Area of San Jose, Costa Rica

  • Edward Funkhouser
  • Juan Pablo Pérez Sáinz
  • Carlos Sojo
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    The large number of recent Nicaraguan immigrants to Costa Rica during the 1990s have outcomes that are worse than Costa Ricans in many dimensions. Moreover, Nicaraguans are geographically and occupationally concentrated. This paper documents the magnitude of Nicaraguan group effects and examines the consistency of the evidence with the main explanations for social exclusion. The results -and especially the high levels of labor market participation - suggest that Nicaraguans, like other immigrant groups that have chosen to migrate, are vulnerable rather than excluded. There is some evidence that the mechanisms leading to changes in legal status, transferability of skills, and discrimination could explain some of Nicaraguans’ worse outcomes and type of integration. While there is not a strong relationship between neighborhood characteristics and outcomes once other controls are included, the current housing policy of the Costa Rican government makes it likely that geographic concentration of Nicaraguans will continue to increase, which could lead to a negative relationship between concentration and outcomes in the future.

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    File URL: http://www.iadb.org/research/pub_hits.cfm?pub_id=R-437&pub_file_name=pubR-437.pdf
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    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3133.

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    Date of creation: Apr 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3133
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    1. Marianne Bertrand & Erzo Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1998. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Working Papers 784, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    2. Edward L. Glaeser & David Laibson & Bruce Sacerdote, 2001. "The Economic Approach to Social Capital," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1916, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    3. Glenn C. Loury, 2000. "Social Exclusion and Ethnic Groups: The Challenge to Economics," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 106, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
    4. Cutler, David M & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 827-72, August.
    5. Borjas, George J., 1998. "To Ghetto or Not to Ghetto: Ethnicity and Residential Segregation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 228-253, September.
    6. Cutler, David & Vigdor, Jacob & Glaeser, Edward, 1999. "The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto," Scholarly Articles 2770033, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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