IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Productivity: Should We Include Bads?


  • Färe, Rolf

    () (Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics)

  • Grosskopf, Shawna

    () (Dept. of Economics and Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics)

  • Lundgren, Tommy

    () (CERE, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics)

  • Marklund, Per-Olov

    () (CERE, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics and CERUM, Centre for Regional Science)

  • Zhou, Wenchao

    () (CERUM, Centre for Regional Science)


This paper studies the interaction between economic and environmental performance. Applying the directional output distance function approach, the purpose is to compare estimates of Luenberger total factor productivity indicators, including and excluding bad outputs. Specifically, based on unique firm level data from Swedish manufacturing covering the period 1990 to 2008, we explore to what extent excluding bad outputs leads to erroneous productivity measurement. The main conclusion is that bad outputs should not only be included in the estimations, but also reduction in bad outputs should be credited. From this point of view the directional output distance function approach and the Luenberger indicator serves as an appropriate basis of productivity measurement.

Suggested Citation

  • Färe, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov & Zhou, Wenchao, 2012. "Productivity: Should We Include Bads?," CERE Working Papers 2012:13, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:slucer:2012_013

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Yoruk, BarIs K. & Zaim, Osman, 2005. "Productivity growth in OECD countries: A comparison with Malmquist indices," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 401-420, June.
    2. William L. Weber & Bruce Domazlicky, 2001. "Productivity Growth and Pollution in State Manufacturing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(1), pages 195-199, February.
    3. Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf & Carl A Pasurka, Jr., 2001. "Accounting for Air Pollution Emissions in Measures of State Manufacturing Productivity Growth," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 381-409.
    4. Walter Briec & Kristiaan Kerstens, 2008. "Infeasibility and Directional Distance Functions with Application to the Determinateness of the Luenberger Productivity Indicator," Working Papers 2008-ECO-11, IESEG School of Management.
    5. Briec, Walter & Kerstens, Kristiaan, 2009. "The Luenberger productivity indicator: An economic specification leading to infeasibilities," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 597-600, May.
    6. Chambers, Robert G. & Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna, 1996. "Productivity Growth in APEC Countries," Working Papers 197843, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    7. Kumar, Surender, 2006. "Environmentally sensitive productivity growth: A global analysis using Malmquist-Luenberger index," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 280-293, February.
    8. Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Pasurka, Carl Jr., 2007. "Pollution abatement activities and traditional productivity," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 673-682, May.
    9. Byung M. Jeon & Robin C. Sickles, 2004. "The role of environmental factors in growth accounting," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(5), pages 567-591.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Cui, Qiang & Wei, Yi-Ming & Li, Ye, 2016. "Exploring the impacts of the EU ETS emission limits on airline performance via the Dynamic Environmental DEA approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 984-994.
    2. repec:eee:appene:v:199:y:2017:i:c:p:13-24 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Boussemart, Jean Philippe & Leleu, Hervé & Shen, Zhiyang, 2015. "Environmental growth convergence among Chinese regions," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 1-18.
    4. Zhang, Shanshan & Lundgren, Tommy & Zhou, Wenchao, 2016. "Energy efficiency in Swedish industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 42-51.
    5. Jeanneaux, Philippe & Latruffe, Laure, 2016. "Modelling pollution-generating technologies in performance benchmarking: Recent developments, limits and future prospects in the nonparametric frameworkAuthor-Name: Dakpo, K. Hervé," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 250(2), pages 347-359.
    6. repec:eee:trapol:v:60:y:2017:i:c:p:131-142 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Swedish manufacturing; Luenberger indicator; emissions; productivity;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:slucer:2012_013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mona Bonta Bergman). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.