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The Use of Cash and the Size of the Shadow Economy in Sweden

Author

Listed:
  • Guibourg, Gabriela

    () (Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of Sweden)

  • Segendorf, Björn

    () (International Secretariat, Central Bank of Sweden)

Abstract

We use an “unexplained demand for cash” approach to measure the size of the shadow economy in Sweden. The size of the shadow economy is found to have increased from 3.8 to 6.5 per cent of GDP from 1990 to 2004. This result is also supported by our finding of an increased residual between households’ recorded disposable income and their consumption, investments and changes in net financial positions. Moreover, the correlation between the demand for cash that cannot be explained by recorded transactions and this residual is strong.

Suggested Citation

  • Guibourg, Gabriela & Segendorf, Björn, 2007. "The Use of Cash and the Size of the Shadow Economy in Sweden," Working Paper Series 204, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:rbnkwp:0204
    as

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    File URL: http://www.riksbank.se/upload/Dokument_riksbank/Kat_foa/2007/wp204.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    4. Alm, James & Torgler, Benno, 2006. "Culture differences and tax morale in the United States and in Europe," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 224-246, April.
    5. Mikael Stenkula, 2004. "The Euro Cash Changeover Process," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 265-286, May.
    6. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strom, Steiner, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(1), pages 21-38, March.
    7. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
    8. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strøm, Steinar, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," MPRA Paper 80748, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 1985.
    9. Juin-jen Chang & Ching-chong Lai, 2004. "Collaborative tax evasion and social norms: why deterrence does not work," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(2), pages 344-368, April.
    10. Humphrey, David & Kaloudis, Aris & Owre, Grete, 2004. "The future of cash: falling legal use and implications for government policy," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 221-233, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cash use; demand for cash; shadow economy; National Accounts; Financial Accounts;

    JEL classification:

    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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