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How Flexible are the Inflation Targets? A Bayesian MCMC Estimator of the Long Memory Parameter in a State Space Model

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  • Andersson, Fredrik N.G.

    () (Department of Economics, Lund University)

  • Li, Yushu

    () (Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics)

Abstract

Several central banks have adopted inflation targets. The implementation of these targets is flexible; the central banks aim to meet the target over the long term but allow inflation to deviate from the target in the short-term in order to avoid unnecessary volatility in the real economy. In this paper, we propose modeling the degree of flexibility using an AFRIMA model. Under the assumption that the central bankers control the long-run inflation rates, the fractional integration order captures the flexibility of the inflation targets. A higher integration order is associated with a more flexible target. Several estimators of the fractional integration order have been proposed in the literature. Grassi and Magistris (2011) show that a state-based maximum likelihood estimator is superior to other estimators, but our simulations show that their finding is over-biased for a nearly non-stationary time series. We resolve this issue by using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) estimator. Applying this estimator to inflation from six inflation-targeting countries for the period 1999M1 to 2013M3, we find that inflation is integrated of order 0.8 to 0.9 depending on the country. The inflation targets are thus implemented with a high degree of flexibility.

Suggested Citation

  • Andersson, Fredrik N.G. & Li, Yushu, 2013. "How Flexible are the Inflation Targets? A Bayesian MCMC Estimator of the Long Memory Parameter in a State Space Model," Working Papers 2013:38, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:lunewp:2013_038
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    File URL: http://project.nek.lu.se/publications/workpap/papers/WP13_38.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sowell, Fallaw, 1992. "Maximum likelihood estimation of stationary univariate fractionally integrated time series models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 165-188.
    2. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Long memory relationships and the aggregation of dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 227-238, October.
    3. Fredrik Andersson, 2014. "Exchange rates dynamics revisited: a panel data test of the fractional integration order," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 389-409, September.
    4. Koop, Gary & Ley, Eduardo & Osiewalski, Jacek & Steel, Mark F. J., 1997. "Bayesian analysis of long memory and persistence using ARFIMA models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, pages 149-169.
    5. Durbin, James & Koopman, Siem Jan, 2012. "Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780199641178.
    6. Grassi, Stefano & Santucci de Magistris, Paolo, 2014. "When long memory meets the Kalman filter: A comparative study," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 301-319.
    7. Shimotsu, Katsumi, 2010. "Exact Local Whittle Estimation Of Fractional Integration With Unknown Mean And Time Trend," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 501-540, April.
    8. Mark J. Jensen, 2004. "Semiparametric Bayesian Inference of Long-Memory Stochastic Volatility Models," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(6), pages 895-922, November.
    9. Coleman, Simeon & Sirichand, Kavita, 2012. "Fractional integration and the volatility of UK interest rates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 381-384.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    fractional integration; inflation-targeting; state space model;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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