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Relative sources of European regional productivity convergence: A bootstrap frontier approach

We address the issue of Western European regional productivity growth and convergence by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), decomposing labor productivity into efficiency change, technical change and capital accumulation. The decomposition shows that most regions have fallen behind the production frontier in efficiency and that capital accumulation has had a diverging effect on the labor productivity distribution. We also account for the inherent bias and the stochastic elements in the efficiency estimation using bootstrapping methods. We find that the relative ranking of the bias-corrected efficiency scores remains stable after the bias correction and that the DEA successfully identifies the regions on the production frontier as significantly more efficient than other regions.

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Paper provided by Lund University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2006:17.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: 14 Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published as Enflo, Kerstin and Per Hjertstrand, 'Relative sources of European regional productivity convergence: A bootstrap frontier approach' in Regional Studies, 2009, pages 643-659.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:lunewp:2006_017
Contact details of provider: Postal: Department of Economics, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Box 7082, S-220 07 Lund,Sweden
Phone: +46 +46 222 0000
Fax: +46 +46 2224613
Web page:

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  1. SIMAR, Léopold & WILSON, Paul, 1995. "Sensitivity Analysis to Efficiency Scores : How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," CORE Discussion Papers 1995043, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  2. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor & Lorenzo Serrano, 2000. "Efficiency and Productive Specialization: An Application to the Spanish Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(9), pages 829-842.
  3. Mas, Matilde & Perez, Francisco & Uriel, Ezequiel, 2000. "Estimation of the Stock of Capital in Spain," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(1), pages 103-16, March.
  4. Luisa Corrado & Ron Martin & Melvyn Weeks, 2005. "Identifying and Interpreting Regional Convergence Clusters across Europe," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(502), pages C133-C160, 03.
  5. Daniel J. Henderson & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2007. "Testing for (Efficiency) Catching-up," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 1003–1019, April.
  6. Simar, L. & Wilson, P.W., 2000. "Performance of the Bootstrap for DEA Estimators and Iterating the Principle," Papers 2, Catholique de Louvain - Institut de statistique.
  7. GIJBELS, Irène & MAMMEN, Enno & PARK, Byeong U. & SIMAR, Léopold, 1997. "On estimation of monotone and concave frontier functions," CORE Discussion Papers 1997031, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  8. Jan Fagerberg & Bart Verspagen, 1996. "Heading for Divergence? Regional Growth in Europe Reconsidered," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 431-448, 09.
  9. Joaquín Maudos Villarroya & José Manuel Pastor Monsálvez & Lorenzo Serrano Martínez, 1998. "- Convergence In Oecd Countries: Technical Change, Efficiency And Productivity," Working Papers. Serie EC 1998-21, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  10. Ben Gardiner & Ron Martin & Tyler Peter, 2004. "Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Growth across the European Regions," ERSA conference papers ersa04p333, European Regional Science Association.
  11. Christophe Kamps, 2004. "The Dynamic Effects of Public Capital: VAR Evidence for 22 OECD Countries," Kiel Working Papers 1224, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  12. F. Bonaglia & L. Picci, 2000. "Lo stock di capitale nelle Regioni Italiane," Working Papers 374, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  13. Leopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "A general methodology for bootstrapping in non-parametric frontier models," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(6), pages 779-802.
  14. Gouyette, Claudine & Neven, Damien J, 1994. "Regional Convergence in the European Community," CEPR Discussion Papers 914, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Los, Bart & Timmer, Marcel P., 2001. "The 'appropriate technology' explanation of productivity growth differentials: an empirical approach," CCSO Working Papers 200112, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
  16. Daniel J. Henderson & R. Robert Russell, 2005. "Human Capital And Convergence: A Production-Frontier Approach ," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1167-1205, November.
  17. Andreas Stephan, 2001. "Regional Infrastructure Policy and its Impact on Productivity: A Comparison of Germany and France," CIG Working Papers FS IV 01-02, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  18. Quah, Danny, 1996. "Regional Convergence Clusters Across Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 1286, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Carlos Gil Canaleta & Pedro Pascual Arzoz & Manuel Rapun Gárate, 2003. "Productivity, Public Capital and Convergence: A Study of the Spanish Regions," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 94(5), pages 537-553, December.
  20. Fare, Rolf & Shawna Grosskopf & Mary Norris & Zhongyang Zhang, 1994. "Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 66-83, March.
  21. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Regional convergence clusters across Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 951-958, April.
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