On blending mandates, border tax adjustment and import standards for biofuels
The transport sector is a major contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions and its share is increasing. Biofuels may provide an option to replace fossil fuels and generate an increasing worldwide interest. Rich countries like the US and the European Union ha idies for domestic producers, while applying tariffs for some of the foreign producers. Mid income and poor countries do not have binding restrictions on carbon emissions in the Kyoto treaty, but may have great potential for producing biofuels both for domestic and foreign use. In this paper we study trade policies for biofuels. We find that only by combining an import standard with border tax adjustment the government can ensure cost efficient production of biofuels from a global point of view. We also consider a blending mandate. This fundamentally alters the way the market works. For instance, if domestic biofuels production is subsidized, the optimal BTA may be negative.
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- Rajagopal, Deepak & Zilberman, David, 2007. "Review of environmental, economic and policy aspects of biofuels," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4341, The World Bank.
- Hamelinck, Carlo N & Faaij, Andre P.C., 2006. "Outlook for advanced biofuels," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 3268-3283, November.
- Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Ottar MÆstad, 1998. "On the Efficiency of Green Trade Policy," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 11(1), pages 1-18, January.
- Ottar Mæstad, 2001. "Efficient Climate Policy with Internationally Mobile Firms," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 19(3), pages 267-284, July.
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