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Entrepreneurial employees: Are they different from independent entrepreneurs?

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  • Nyström, Kristina

    () (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)

Abstract

This paper uses individual-level data from the Swedish 2011 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) to investigate differences with respect to individual characteristics associated with independent entrepreneurs (nascent entrepreneurship and new business ownership) and entrepreneurial employees. Are there any differences with respect to gender, age, income and education associated with these different forms of entrepreneurship? Furthermore, it can be argued that an entrepreneurial employee differs with respect to attitudes and perceptions about entrepreneurship. Do attitudes and perceptions about entrepreneurship, for example, perceiving entrepreneurship as good career choice, or the fear of failure differ between entrepreneurial employees and independent entrepreneurs? Our empirical findings shows what differs between entrepreneurial employees and independent entrepreneurs are their perceptions about opportunities and capabilities. Moreover, the probability of becoming an entrepreneurial employee increases with the level of education.

Suggested Citation

  • Nyström, Kristina, 2012. "Entrepreneurial employees: Are they different from independent entrepreneurs?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 281, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:cesisp:0281
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, March.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2014. "Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 787-814, April.
    3. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    4. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, March.
    5. Parker, Simon C., 2011. "Intrapreneurship or entrepreneurship?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 19-34, January.
    6. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    7. N.S. Bosma & E. Stam & S. Wennekers, 2011. "Intrapreneurship versus independent entrepreneurship: A cross-national analysis of individual entrepreneurial behavior," Working Papers 11-04, Utrecht School of Economics.
    8. Nyström, Kristina, 2008. "Is Entrepreneurship the Salvation for Enhanced Economic Growth?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 143, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
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    Cited by:

    1. Annamária BENYOVSZKI & Ágnes NAGY & Tünde Petra PETRU, 2013. "Is there a difference between intrapreneurs and early-stage entrepreneurs in Romania?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(6(583)), pages 53-60, June.
    2. Beynon, Malcolm J. & Jones, Paul & Pickernell, David, 2016. "Country-based comparison analysis using fsQCA investigating entrepreneurial attitudes and activity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(4), pages 1271-1276.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurial employees; Global Entrepreneurship monitor; Sweden;

    JEL classification:

    • D20 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - General
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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