IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/journl/hal-03913051.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Motives for pocket money allowance and family incentives

Author

Listed:
  • Christine Barnet-Verzat

    (LEN - Laboratoire d'économie de Nantes - IEMN-IAE Nantes - Institut d'Économie et de Management de Nantes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes)

  • François-Charles Wolff

    (INED - Institut national d'études démographiques, LEN - Laboratoire d'économie de Nantes - IEMN-IAE Nantes - Institut d'Économie et de Management de Nantes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes)

Abstract

To explain motives underlying intergenerational transfers within the family, economists suggest three theoretical hypotheses: altruism, exchange and endogenous altruism due to preference shaping. In this paper we seek to identify family motives for private transfers in France, through the study of pocket money. Using a particularly rich survey carried out in 1992 about parental transfers to young children, our econometric analysis puts forward the heterogeneity of family motivations. The standard assumption according to which a single motive may be universally true is rejected by the data. At a disaggregated level, regular payments must be distinguished from irregular ones. The former fit in an intertemporal framework, the latter are nearer altruistic motives. But among them, buying of children's services and school rewards also exist.

Suggested Citation

  • Christine Barnet-Verzat & François-Charles Wolff, 2002. "Motives for pocket money allowance and family incentives," Post-Print hal-03913051, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03913051
    DOI: 10.1016/S0167-4870(02)00080-6
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.science/hal-03913051
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://hal.science/hal-03913051/document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/S0167-4870(02)00080-6?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Arrondel, Luc & Laferrere, Anne, 2001. "Taxation and wealth transmission in France," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 3-33, January.
    2. Schoeni, Robert F, 1997. "Private Interhousehold Transfers of Money and Time: New Empirical Evidence," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 423-448, December.
    3. François-Charles Wolff, 2000. "Transferts monétaires "inter vivos" et cycle de vie," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(6), pages 1419-1452.
    4. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Barro, Robert J, 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
    6. Cox, Donald & Jappelli, Tullio, 1990. "Credit Rationing and Private Transfers: Evidence from Survey Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 445-454, August.
    7. Gary S. Becker, 1992. "Habits, Addictions, and Traditions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(3), pages 327-345, August.
    8. Laitner, John & Juster, F Thomas, 1996. "New Evidence on Altruism: A Study of TIAA-CREF Retirees," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 893-908, September.
    9. Gary S. Becker & Casey B. Mulligan, 1997. "The Endogenous Determination of Time Preference," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 729-758.
    10. Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, 1994. "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education, Third Edition, pages 257-298, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Abramovitch, Rona & Freedman, Jonathan L. & Pliner, Patricia, 1991. "Children and money: getting an allowance, credit versus cash, and knowledge of pricing," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 27-45, March.
    12. Becker, Gary S, 1993. "Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 385-409, June.
    13. Cox, Donald & Rank, Mark R, 1992. "Inter-vivos Transfers and Intergenerational Exchange," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 305-314, May.
    14. Anne Laferrère, 2000. "Intergenerational Transmission Models: A Survey," International Economic Association Series, in: L.-A. Gérard-Varet & S.-C. Kolm & J. Mercier Ythier (ed.), The Economics of Reciprocity, Giving and Altruism, chapter 11, pages 207-225, Palgrave Macmillan.
    15. William G. Gale & John Karl Scholz, 1994. "Intergenerational Transfers and the Accumulation of Wealth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 145-160, Fall.
    16. Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence Kotlikoff, "undated". "The Effects of Income and Wealth on Time and MOney Transfers Between Parents and Children," IPR working papers 96-5, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
    17. Christine Barnet-Verzat & François-Charles Wolff, 2001. "L'argent de poche versé aux jeunes : l'apprentissage de l'autonomie financière," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 343(1), pages 51-72.
    18. Donald Cox, 1990. "Intergenerational Transfers and Liquidity Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(1), pages 187-217.
    19. Cigno, Alessandro, 1993. "Intergenerational transfers without altruism : Family, market and state," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 505-518, November.
    20. Rogers, Alan R, 1994. "Evolution of Time Preference by Natural Selection," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 460-481, June.
    21. Kathleen McGarry & Robert F. Schoeni, 1995. "Transfer Behavior in the Health and Retirement Study: Measurement and the Redistribution of Resources within the Family," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30, pages 184-226.
    22. Anderson, Gary M. & Tollison, Robert D., 1991. "A theory of rational childhood," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 199-213, July.
    23. Neil Bruce & Michael Waldman, 1990. "The Rotten-Kid Theorem Meets the Samaritan's Dilemma," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(1), pages 155-165.
    24. Jellal, Mohamed & Wolff, Francois-Charles, 2000. "Shaping intergenerational relationships: the demonstration effect," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 255-261, September.
    25. Andreoni, James, 1989. "Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(6), pages 1447-1458, December.
    26. Wolff, Francois-Charles & Laferrere, Anne, 2006. "Microeconomic models of family transfers," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 889-969, Elsevier.
    27. Akerlof, George A, 1983. "Loyalty Filters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(1), pages 54-63, March.
    28. Bernheim, B Douglas & Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H, 1986. "The Strategic Bequest Motive," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages 151-182, July.
    29. Furnham, Adrian, 2001. "Parental attitudes to pocket money/allowances for children," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 397-422, June.
    30. Wilhelm, Mark O, 1996. "Bequest Behavior and the Effect of Heirs' Earnings: Testing the Altruistic Model of Bequests," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 874-892, September.
    31. Luc Arrondel & André Masson, 1991. "Que nous enseignent les enquêtes sur les transferts patrimoniaux en France ?," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 100(4), pages 93-128.
    32. Becker, Gary S, 1992. "Habits, Addictions, and Traditions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(3), pages 327-345.
    33. Lindbeck, Assar & Weibull, Jorgen W, 1988. "Altruism and Time Consistency: The Economics of Fait Accompli," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(6), pages 1165-1182, December.
    34. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    35. Bisin, Alberto & Verdier, Thierry, 1998. "On the cultural transmission of preferences for social status," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 75-97, October.
    36. Furnham, Adrian, 1999. "The saving and spending habits of young people," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 677-697, December.
    37. Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1997. "Parental Altruism and Inter Vivos Transfers: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1121-1166, December.
    38. Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1988. "Intergenerational Transfers and Savings," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 41-58, Spring.
    39. Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, 1992. "Collective Labor Supply and Welfare," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 437-467, June.
    40. Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-546, June.
    41. Cigno, Alessandro & C. Giannelli, Gianna & Rosati, Furio C., 1998. "Voluntary transfers among Italian households: altruistic and non-altruistic explanations," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 435-451, December.
    42. Robert F. Schoeni, 1997. "Private Interhousehold Transfers Of Money And Time: New Empirical Evidence," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 423-448, December.
    43. Luc Arrondel & François-Charles Wolff, 1998. "La nature des transferts inter vivos en France : investissements humains, aides financières et transmission du patrimoine," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 135(4), pages 1-27.
    44. Fan, Chinn-Ping, 2000. "Teaching children cooperation -- An application of experimental game theory," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 191-209, March.
    45. John Logan & Glenna Spitze, 1995. "Self-interest and altruism in intergenerational relations," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 32(3), pages 353-364, August.
    46. Bergstrom, Theodore C, 1989. "A Fresh Look at the Rotten Kid Theorem--and Other Household Mysteries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1138-1159, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wolff, Francois-Charles & Laferrere, Anne, 2006. "Microeconomic models of family transfers," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 889-969, Elsevier.
    2. Carlsson Hauff, Jeanette & Hermansson, Cecilia, 2023. "“Buy him some Tesla stocks for his baptism”: Gender differences among young savers," Working Paper Series 23/12, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management & Banking and Finance, revised 25 Jan 2024.
    3. Lisa Farrell & Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields, 2002. "The Economic Motives for Child Allowances: Altruism, Exchange or Value of Independence?," Discussion Papers Series 446, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    4. Lin Zhang & Shinsuke Ikeda, 2016. "Welfare-enhancing parental altruism and children’s habit formation," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 63(3), pages 281-303, September.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2003:i:1:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ben Lakhdar, Christian & Cauchie, Grégoire & Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard & Wolff, François-Charles, 2012. "The role of family incomes in cigarette smoking: Evidence from French students," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(12), pages 1864-1873.
    7. J. Michael Collins & Elizabeth Odders-White, 2021. "Allowances: Incidence in the US and Relationship to Financial Capability in Young Adulthood," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 533-544, September.
    8. Lu Ma & Zeping Fang & Liwang Gao & Yaling Zhao & Hong Xue & Ke Li & Youfa Wang, 2020. "A 3-year Longitudinal Study of Pocket Money, Eating Behavior, Weight Status: The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-Cities," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(23), pages 1-13, December.
    9. Chau-kiu Cheung & Jerf Wai-keung Yeung, 2017. "Parental and Teachers’ Regard as Mediators of the Effect of Girls’ Delinquency on Hope," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 10(3), pages 839-858, September.
    10. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:9:y:2008:i:13:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. François-Charles Wolff & Christine Barnet-Verzat, 2008. "Pocket money and child effort at school," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 9(13), pages 1-10.
    12. Wolff François-Charles & Barnet-Verzat Christine, 2003. "Labor opportunities against family intergenerational exchange," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 10(1), pages 1-7.
    13. Brown, Sarah & Taylor, Karl, 2016. "Early influences on saving behaviour: Analysis of British panel data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1-14.
    14. Otto, Annette, 2013. "Saving in childhood and adolescence: Insights from developmental psychology," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 8-18.
    15. Steven Levitt & John List & Sally Sadoff, 2016. "The Effect of Performance-Based Incentives on Educational Achievement: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," Framed Field Experiments 00585, The Field Experiments Website.
    16. Clinton Gudmunson & Sharon Danes, 2011. "Family Financial Socialization: Theory and Critical Review," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 644-667, December.
    17. Steier, Lloyd, 2003. "Variants of agency contracts in family-financed ventures as a continuum of familial altruistic and market rationalities," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 597-618, September.
    18. Jellal, Mohamed, 2014. "A theory of family education incentives and inequality," MPRA Paper 57913, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Viola Angelini & Anne Laferrère, 2013. "Parental altruism and nest leaving in Europe: evidence from a retrospective survey," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 393-420, September.
    20. Jellal, Mohamed, 2009. "A Theory of Educational Inequality Family and Agency Costs," MPRA Paper 17434, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Pierre-André Chiappori & Edoardo Ciscato & Carla Guerriero, 2021. "Analyzing Matching Patterns in Marriage:Theory and Application to Italian Data," CSEF Working Papers 613, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    22. Permani, Risti & Nuryartono, Nunung & Wardani, Fikria Ulfa & Anggraenie, Triana, 2015. "'Local Milk for Local Schools?': Children Dairy Consumption Behaviours, Willingness to Pay and Health in Indonesia," 2015 Conference (59th), February 10-13, 2015, Rotorua, New Zealand 202570, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    23. Cheung, Chau-kiu & Ngai, Ngan-pun, 2010. "Training to raise unemployed youth's work commitment in Tianjin," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 298-305, February.
    24. Sarah Brown & Karl Taylor, 2012. "Expectations and the Saving Behaviour of Children: Analysis of the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics," Working Papers 2012015, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
    25. J. Michael Collins & Madelaine L’Esperance, 2023. "What do students gain from banks in schools? A field study," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 567-590, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Wolff, Francois-Charles & Laferrere, Anne, 2006. "Microeconomic models of family transfers," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 889-969, Elsevier.
    2. Marta Melguizo Garde, 2007. "La motivación de las transmisiones lucrativas entre generaciones de una familia: modelos teóricos y evidencia empírica," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 181(2), pages 81-118, June.
    3. Jellal, Mohamed & Wolff, Francois-Charles, 2002. "Cultural evolutionary altruism: theory and evidence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 241-262, June.
    4. Arrondel, Luc & Masson, Andre, 2006. "Altruism, exchange or indirect reciprocity: what do the data on family transfers show?," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 971-1053, Elsevier.
    5. Mohamed Jellal & François-Charles Wolff, 2003. "Solidarités familiales par la démonstration," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 54(4), pages 785-810.
    6. Stefan Hochguertel & Henry Ohlsson, 2009. "Compensatory inter vivos gifts," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 993-1023.
    7. Francois-Charles Wolff & Seymour Spilerman & Claudine Attias-Donfut, 2005. "Do Parents Help More their Less Well-Off Children? Evidence from a Sample of Migrants to France," Microeconomics 0504001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Luc Arrondel & François-Charles Wolff, 1998. "La nature des transferts inter vivos en France : investissements humains, aides financières et transmission du patrimoine," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 135(4), pages 1-27.
    9. Katarina Nordblom & Henry Ohlsson, 2011. "Bequests, gifts, and education: links between intergenerational transfers," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 343-358, April.
    10. Elin Halvorsen & Thor O. Thoresen, 2011. "Parents' Desire to Make Equal Inter Vivos Transfers," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 57(1), pages 121-155, March.
    11. repec:dgr:uvatin:20070074 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Stefan Hochguertel & Henry Ohlsson, 2009. "Compensatory inter vivos gifts," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 993-1023.
    13. Edward Wolff & Maury Gittleman, 2014. "Inheritances and the distribution of wealth or whatever happened to the great inheritance boom?," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 12(4), pages 439-468, December.
    14. Christine Barnet-Verzat & François-Charles Wolff, 2001. "L'argent de poche versé aux jeunes : l'apprentissage de l'autonomie financière," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 343(1), pages 51-72.
    15. Ana Fernandes, 2011. "Altruism, labor supply and redistributive neutrality," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(4), pages 1443-1469, October.
    16. Mohamed Jellal & Francois-Charles Wolff, 2002. "Altruistic Bequests with Inherited Tastes," International Journal of Business and Economics, School of Management Development, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 1(2), pages 95-113, August.
    17. Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1997. "Parental Altruism and Inter Vivos Transfers: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1121-1166, December.
    18. Mauro Baranzini, 2005. "Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(233-234), pages 109-172.
    19. Mauro Baranzini, 2005. "Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 58(233-234), pages 109-172.
    20. Signe-Mary McKernan & Caroline Ratcliffe & Margaret Simms & Sisi Zhang, 2014. "Do Racial Disparities in Private Transfers Help Explain the Racial Wealth Gap? New Evidence From Longitudinal Data," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(3), pages 949-974, June.
    21. Jellal, Mohamed, 2009. "A Theory of Educational Inequality Family and Agency Costs," MPRA Paper 17434, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03913051. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: CCSD (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.