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Les transferts versés aux enfants et aux parents : altruisme ou échange intertemporel?

  • François-Charles Wolff

[fre] Cet article étudie les transferts familiaux versés par une génération intermédiaire pivot à ses enfants adultes et à ses parents. Cette double sollicitation peut être expliquée par un échange intertemporel où les pivots égoïstes prêtent de l'argent aux jeunes pour être remboursés ultérieurement, ou bien par l'altruisme des pivots à l'égard des enfants et des parents. L'analyse économétrique réalisée à partir de l'enquête Cnav Trois Générations 1992 révèle que les aides aux enfants correspondent principalement à des investissements dans le capital humain et que les aides aux ascendants sont principalement déterminées par les besoins des parents aidés. Si celles-ci ne traduisent guère un remboursement contractuel de la part des pivots, le modèle altruiste s'avère également rejeté d' après les données. [eng] Transfers Paid to Children and Parents : Altruism or Intertemporal Exchange ? . by François-Charles Wolff . This article studies family transfers paid by an intermediate generation (pivot) to its adult children and parents. This solicitation from both sides may be explained by an intertemporal exchange, whereby selfish pivots lend money to the young to be paid back later. Conversely, it may be explained by the pivots' altruism towards their children and parents. An econometric analysis based on the 1992 CNAV Three Generations survey reveals that financial assistance to children is mainly an investment in human capital and that assistance to ascendants is mainly determined by the needs of the assisted parents. Although this assistance hardly reflects a contractual reimbursement by the pivots, the altruistic model is also rejected by the data.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

Volume (Year): 142 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 67-91

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_2000_num_142_1_5988
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.2000.5988
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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  1. Anne Laferrere, 1999. "Intergenerational Transmission Models: A Survey," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(1), pages 2-26, January.
  2. Lee Lillard & Robert Willis, 1997. "Motives for interqenerational transfers: Evidence from Malaysia," Demography, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 115-134, February.
  3. Donald Cox & Oded Stark, 1996. "Intergenerational Transfers and the Demonstration Effect," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 329., Boston College Department of Economics.
  4. Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, . "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 84-10, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  5. Cigno, Alessandro & C. Giannelli, Gianna & Rosati, Furio C., 1998. "Voluntary transfers among Italian households: altruistic and non-altruistic explanations," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 435-451, December.
  6. Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou & Axel Borsch-Supan, 1990. "Smooth Unbiased Multivariate Probability Simulators for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Limited Dependent Variable Models," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 960, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  7. Ehrlich, Isaac & Lui, Francis T, 1991. "Intergenerational Trade, Longevity, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 1029-59, October.
  8. François-Charles Wolff, 2000. "Transferts et redistribution familiale collective," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(1), pages 143-162.
  9. Roger H. Gordon & Hal R. Varian, 1985. "Intergenerational Risk Sharing," NBER Working Papers 1730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Cigno, Alessandro, 1993. "Intergenerational transfers without altruism : Family, market and state," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 505-518, November.
  11. Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence Kotlikoff, 1996. "The Effects of Income and Wealth on Time and Money Transfers between Parents and Children," NBER Working Papers 5522, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Lagerlof, Nils-Petter, 1997. "Endogenous fertility and the old-age security hypothesis: A note," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 279-286, May.
  13. François-Charles Wolff & Luc Arrondel, 1998. "La nature des transferts inter vivos en France : investissements humains, aides financières et transmission du patrimoine," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 135(4), pages 1-27.
  14. Raut, Lakshmi K. & Tran, Lien H., 2005. "Parental human capital investment and old-age transfers from children: Is it a loan contract or reciprocity for Indonesian families?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 389-414, August.
  15. André Masson & Luc Arrondel, 1991. "Que nous enseignent les enquêtes sur les transferts patrimoniaux en France ?," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 100(4), pages 93-128.
  16. Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 467.
  17. Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-46, June.
  18. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  19. Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1997. "Better rich, or better there?," FCND discussion papers 23, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  20. François-Charles Wolff, 2000. "Transferts monétaires "inter vivos" et cycle de vie," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(6), pages 1419-1452.
  21. Kimball, Miles S., 1987. "Making sense of two-sided altruism," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 301-326, September.
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