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Aid for trade in developing countries: complex linkages for real effectiveness

  • Maryline Huchet-Bourdon

    ()

    (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Agrocampus Ouest - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UMR1302)

  • Anna Lipchitz

    (ONU_Mission permanente de la France - ONU_Mission permanente de la France)

  • Audrey Rousson

    (AFD_Agence Française de Développement - AFD_Agence Française de Développement)

L'aide au commerce, présentée comme un nouvel outil de développement prometteur, vise à soutenir l'intégration commerciale des pays en développement. Il manque néanmoins à cette aide, pour asseoir son efficacité et respecter les engagements politiques des donateurs, une dimension stratégique. D'un point de vue théorique, cette étude présente les différentes catégories d'aide au commerce et analyse les relations entre IDE, aide au commerce et développement. Elle propose également une typologie des besoins liés au commerce pour un panel de pays afin de guider les bailleurs de fonds dans la définition de leurs stratégies d'offre. Cette typologie met en avant des disparités aux niveaux national et régional, ainsi qu'une faible intégration régionale. Les besoins liés au commerce, particulièrement forts pour les régions de l'Afrique de l'Ouest et de l'Afrique de l'Est, sont importants dans le secteur des infrastructures. Cet article souligne également l'importance d'affiner la formulation des demandes réelles du côté des bénéficiaires, de structurer l'offre des bailleurs en fonction de leurs propres compétences et d'approfondir la coordination entre les différentes parties prenantes, dont acteurs publics et acteurs privés. Enfin, une libéralisation plus poussée des échanges ne suffira pas, à elle seule, à enclencher une croissance forte et à améliorer la répartition géographique et sectorielle des IDE. Des facteurs comme la stabilité politique, l'environnement des entreprises, l'infrastructure matérielle, les institutions et le capital humain sont également des dimensions fondamentales. En particulier, une cohérence entre politiques commerciales, sectorielles, macroéconomiques et fiscales est impérative, pour chaque pays et chaque région mais également entre pays industrialisés et PED. / Aid for trade is intended to support the integration of developing countries into the world trading system. Although this form of aid is being hailed as a promising new development tool, it lacks the strategic dimension that it needs if it is to be truly effective and fulfil donors' policy commitments. From a theoretical perspective, this paper presents the various aid-for-trade categories and analyses the linkages between foreign direct investment, aid for trade and development. It also presents a typology of trade-related needs for a panel of countries, to serve as a guide for donors in formulating their aid supply strategies. This typology reveals a number of disparities between countries and regions, as well as a low level of regional integration. Trade-related needs are particularly significant in West Africa and East Africa, and substantial in the infrastructure sector. This paper also stresses the importance of refining the formulation of actual demand by beneficiaries, structuring the aid supply in accordance with donors' specific areas of expertise and enhancing coordination among the various stakeholders, both public and private. Lastly, further trade liberalisation will not by itself suffice to generate strong growth and improve the geographical and sectoral distribution of foreign direct investment. Factors such as political stability, the business climate, physical infrastructure, institutions and human capital also play a fundamental role. Of particular importance is the coherence of trade, sectoral, macroeconomic and tax policies, not only within each country and region but also between industrialised and developing countries.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number hal-00729834.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-00729834
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  1. Cling, Jean-Pierre, 2006. "Commerce, croissance, pauvreté et inégalités dans les PED : une revue de littérature," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4373, Paris Dauphine University.
  2. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?," NBER Working Papers 6564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Douglas C. Lippoldt & Przemyslaw Kowalski, 2005. "Trade Preference Erosion: Expanded Assessment of Countries at Risk of Welfare Losses," OECD Trade Policy Papers 20, OECD Publishing.
  4. Wilson, Norbert L.W., 2006. "Linkages amongst Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Trade Policy: An Economic Analysis with Applications to the Food Sector," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21064, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  5. Wilson, John S. & Mann, Catherine L. & Otsuki, Tsunehiro, 2004. "Assessing the potential benefit of trade facilitation : A global perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3224, The World Bank.
  6. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
  7. James A. Robinson & Daron Acemoglu, 2000. "Political Losers as a Barrier to Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 126-130, May.
  8. Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi, 2002. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," NBER Working Papers 9305, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Ronald Mendoza & Chandrika Bahadur, 2002. "Toward Free and Fair Trade: A Global Public Good Perspective," Challenge, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 45(5), pages 21-62, September.
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