IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fao/wpaper/0413.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Internal Mobility and International Migration in Albania

Author

Listed:
  • Gero Carletto

    (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)

  • Benjamin Davis

    (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)

  • Marco Stampini
  • Stefano Trento
  • Alberto Zezza

    (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)

Abstract

Using evidence from two recent data sources – the 2002 Albania Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) and the 2001 Population Census of Albania – the paper documents the phenomena of internal and external migration in Albania, a country that in the past decade has experienced dramatic changes as it makes its transition to a more open market economy. Albania is a country on the move, both internally and internationally. This mobility plays a key role in household-level strategies to cope with the economic hardship of transition and it is perhaps the single most important political, social, and economic phenomenon in post-communist Albania. The order of magnitude of the observed flows is astonishing. Almost one half of all Albanian households have had direct exposure to migration events, either through direct temporary migration of a household member or through their children living abroad. One out of two children who since 1990 no longer live with their parents is now living abroad, primarily in Greece and Italy. For obvious reasons, Greece also remains the preferred destination of temporary migrants, although – and despite the higher costs associated with it – the shares of Albanians temporarily migrating to Italy and Germany have increased substantially in recent years. The paper also provides a micro level analysis of the household’s migration decision. The role of household and community characteristics, including relative deprivation and the importance of social networks, in the decision to migrate are assessed.

Suggested Citation

  • Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Marco Stampini & Stefano Trento & Alberto Zezza, 2004. "Internal Mobility and International Migration in Albania," Working Papers 04-13, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  • Handle: RePEc:fao:wpaper:0413
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/ae068e/ae068e00.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hausman, Jerry & McFadden, Daniel, 1984. "Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1219-1240, September.
    2. Peter Sanfey & Harry Papapanagos, 2001. "Intention to emigrate in transition countries: the case of Albania," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 14(3), pages 491-504.
    3. Paul Winters & Alain de Janvry & Elisabeth Sadoulet, 2001. "Family and Community Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 159-184.
    4. Oded Stark & J. Taylor, 1989. "Relative deprivation and international migration oded stark," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 26(1), pages 1-14, February.
    5. Stark, Oded & Levhari, David, 1982. "On Migration and Risk in LDCs," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(1), pages 191-196, October.
    6. Stark, Oded, 1984. "Rural-to-Urban Migration in LDCs: A Relative Deprivation Approach," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(3), pages 475-486, April.
    7. Augustin de Coulon & Matloob Piracha, 2002. "Self-Selection and the Performance of Return Migrants: The Case of Albania," Studies in Economics 0211, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gero Carletto & Alberto Zezza, 2006. "Being poor, feeling poorer: Combining objective and subjective measures of welfare in Albania," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(5), pages 739-760.
    2. Talip Kilic & Calogero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2009. "Investing back home," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(3), pages 587-623, July.
    3. Anna Iara, 2009. "The Effect of Work Migration on Domestic Labour Supply in Albania," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 76, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    4. Möllers, Judith & Meyer, Wiebke & Xhema, Sherif & Buchenrieder, Gertrud, 2013. "A socio-economic picture of Kosovar migrants and their origin farm households
      [Sozioökonomische Einsichten in kosovarische Migrantenhaushalte in Deutschland und in ihre ländlichen Ursprungshaushalt
      ," IAMO Discussion Papers 140, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO).
    5. World Bank, 2007. "Albania - Urban Growth, Migration and Poverty Reduction : A Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7659, The World Bank.
    6. Azzarri, Carlo & Carletto, Calogero & Davis, Benjamin & Zezza, Alberto, 2006. "Choosing to Migrate or Migrating to Choose: Migration and Labor Choice in Albania," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25538, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Mendola, Mariapia & Carletto, Calogero, 2012. "Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: Evidence from Albania," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 870-880.
    8. Hagen-Zanker, Jessica, 2010. "Modest expectations: Causes and effects of migration on migrant households in source countries," MPRA Paper 29507, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Arjan Gjonça & Arnstein Aassve & Letizia Mencarini, 2009. "The highest fertility in Europe-For how long? Determinants of fertility change in Albania," Demográfia English Edition, Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, vol. 52(5), pages 76-96.
    10. Herbst, Mikolaj & Kaczmarczyk, Pawel & Wojcik, Piotr, 2014. "Migration of Graduates within a Sequential Decision Framework: Evidence from Poland," IZA Discussion Papers 8573, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Meyer, Wiebke, 2012. "Motives for remitting from Germany to Kosovo," Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Transition Economies, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), volume 69, number 69.
    12. Juna Miluka & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2010. "The Vanishing Farms? The Impact of International Migration on Albanian Family Farming," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(1), pages 140-161.
    13. Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Marco Stampini, 2005. "Familiar Faces, Familiar Places: The role of family networks and previous experience for Albanian migrants," Working Papers 05-03, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    14. Carlo Azzarri & Calogero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zazza, 2008. "Migration and Labour Choice in Albania," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 6(2), pages 169-196.
    15. Daichi Shimamoto, 2014. "Motivation behind remittance from migrants: Evidence from Albania," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 14-05, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    16. Nancy McCarthy & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Irini Maltsoglou, 2006. "Assessing the Impact of Massive Out-Migration on Agriculture," Working Papers 06-14, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    17. Alberto Zezza & Gero Carletto & Benjamin Davis, 2005. "Moving Away from Poverty: A spatial analysis of poverty and migration in Albania," Working Papers 05-02, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    18. Adriana Castaldo & Barry Reilly, 2007. "Do Migrant Remittances Affect the Consumption Patterns of Albanian Households?," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 5(1), pages 25-44.
    19. Ardiana Gashi & Nick Adnett, 2015. "The Determinants of Return Migration: Evidence for Kosovo," Croatian Economic Survey, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb, vol. 17(2), pages 57-81, December.
    20. Lisa Arrehag & Orjan Sjoberg & Mirja Sjoblom, 2005. "Cross-border Migration and Remittances in a post-communist society: Return flows of money and goods in the Korce district, Albania," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 3(1), pages 9-40.
    21. Azzarri, Carlo & Carletto, Calogero, 2009. "Modeling migration dynamics in Albania : a hazard function approach," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4945, The World Bank.
    22. Kaczmarczyk, Pawel & Tyrowicz, Joanna, 2015. "Winners and Losers among Skilled Migrants: The Case of Post-Accession Polish Migrants to the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 9057, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    23. Talip Kilic & Calogero Carletto & Juna Miluka & Sara Savastano, 2009. "Rural nonfarm income and its impact on agriculture: evidence from Albania," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 139-160, March.
    24. Tomini, Florian & Hagen-Zanker, Jessica, 2010. "How has internal migration in Albania affected the receipt of transfers from family and friends?," MPRA Paper 29478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. World Bank, 2007. "Albania : Strategic Policies for a More Competitive Agriculture Sector," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7563, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Albania; Households; Labour mobility; Living standards; Market economies; Mathematical models; Migrant labour; Migration; Population dynamics; Rural urban migration; Social behaviour; Social change; Social conditions; Trends; Urban rural migration; Urbanization;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • N34 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: 1913-
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fao:wpaper:0413. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gustavo Anríquez). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/faoooit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.