Gender in Transition: The Case of North Korea
This paper uses a survey of 300 North Korean refugees to examine the experience of women in North Korea’s fitful economic transition. Like other socialist states, North Korea has maintained a de jure commitment to women's rights. However, we find that women have been disproportionately shed from state-affiliated employment and thrust into a market environment characterized by weak institutions and corruption. As a result, the state and its affiliated institutions are increasingly populated by males, and the market, particularly in its retail aspects, is dominated by women. Among the most recent cohort of refugees to leave North Korea, more than one-third of male respondents indicate that criminality and corruption is the best way to make money, and 95 percent of female traders report paying bribes to avoid the penal system. In short, the increasingly male-dominated state preys on the increasingly female-dominated market. These results paint a picture of a vulnerable group that has been disadvantaged in North Korea's transition. Energies are directed toward survival, mass civil disobedience is reactive, and as a group, this population appears to lack the tools or social capital to act collectively to improve their status.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848|
Phone: (808) 944-7560
Fax: (808) 944-7399
Web page: http://eastwestcenter.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Yoonok Chang & Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland, 2008.
"Exit Polls: Refugee Assessments of North Korea's Transition,"
Working Paper Series
WP08-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Chang, Yoonok & Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2009. "Exit polls: Refugee assessments of North Korea's transition," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 144-150, March.
- Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland, 2009.
"Reform from Below: Behavioral and Institutional Change in North Korea,"
Working Paper Series
WP09-8, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2010. "Reform from below: Behavioral and institutional change in North Korea," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 133-152, February.
- Marcus Noland, 2000. "Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 94.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ewc:wpaper:wp124. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Brenda Higashimoto)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.