Gender in Transition: The Case of North Korea
This paper uses survey data to examine the experience of women in North Korea’s economic transition. Women have been shed from state-affiliated employment and thrust into a market environment characterized by weak institutions and corruption. More than one-third of men indicate that criminality and corruption is the best way to make money, and 95% of female traders report paying bribes. The increasingly male-dominated state preys on the increasingly female-dominated market. Energies are directed toward survival and this population appears to lack the tools to act collectively to improve their status.
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- Haggard, Stephan & Lee, Jennifer & Noland, Marcus, 2012.
"Integration in the absence of institutions: China–North Korea cross-border exchange,"
Journal of Asian Economics,
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- Marcus Noland & Stephan Haggard & Jennifer Lee, 2011. "Integration in the Absence of Institutions: China-North Korea Cross-Border Exchange," Working Paper Series WP11-13, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Noland, Marcus & Haggard, Stephan, 2010. "Political attitudes under repression: evidence from North Korean refugees," MPRA Paper 21713, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Chang, Yoonok & Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2009.
"Exit polls: Refugee assessments of North Korea's transition,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 144-150, March.
- Yoonok Chang & Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland, 2008. "Exit Polls: Refugee Assessments of North Korea's Transition," Working Paper Series WP08-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
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"Reform from Below: Behavioral and Institutional Change in North Korea,"
Working Paper Series
WP09-8, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2010. "Reform from below: Behavioral and institutional change in North Korea," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 133-152, February.
- Marcus Noland, 2000. "Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 94, January.
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