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Trade Costs, Wage Difference, and Endogenous Growth

  • TANAKA Akinori
  • YAMAMOTO Kazuhiro

In this paper, we develop an endogenous growth model with two countries in which the international trade of differentiated goods requires trade costs and equilibrium wages in the two countries are different. With this model, we show that both wage differences and market size have important effects on the location of manufacturing firms and the innovation sector as well as on economic growth. First, when trade costs are high, the share of manufacturing firms in the large country increases with a decline in trade costs because of market size. However, the share of firms then decreases with a decline in trade costs when trade costs are low because of wage differences. Finally, all firms agglomerate in the small country, since production costs there are low. In this process, the innovation sector shifts its location from the large-market, high-wage country to the small-market, low-wage country. In this globalization process, growth rates first increase, then decrease, and finally increase with the reduction of trade costs. These results explain the process of the initial high growth of developed countries, location shift of manufacturing firms, and innovation sector from developed to developing countries, which has been observed in recent years.

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Paper provided by Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) in its series Discussion papers with number 12070.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:12070
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  1. Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, 2003. "Agglomeration and growth with innovation in the intermediate goods sector," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 335-360, May.
  2. Minniti, Antonio & Parello, Carmelo Pierpaolo, 2011. "Trade integration and regional disparity in a model of scale-invariant growth," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 20-31, January.
  3. Gao, Ting, 2007. "Trade costs, international production shifting, and growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 317-335, February.
  4. Philippe Martin & Gianmarco Ottaviano, 1996. "Growth and Agglomeration," Working Papers 1996-14, CEPII research center.
    • Martin, Philippe & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I P, 2001. "Growth and Agglomeration," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 947-68, November.
  5. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  6. Kyoko Hirose & Kazuhiro Yamamoto, 2005. "Knowledge spillovers, location of industry, and endogenous growth," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 05-15, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  7. Martin, Philippe & Ottaviano, Gianmarco, 1996. "Growing Locations: Industry Location in a Model of Endogenous Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1523, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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