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Resource Reallocation and Zombie Lending in Japan in the '90s

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  • KWON Hyeog Ug
  • NARITA Futoshi
  • NARITA Machiko

Abstract

We investigate the efficiency of resource reallocation in Japan during the 1990s, a decade of economic recession, by measuring aggregate productivity growth (APG) using a plant-level data set of manufacturers from 1981-2000. We find that resource reallocation contributed negatively to APG, mainly due to inefficient labor reallocation. A possible reason for the inefficient labor reallocation is misdirected bank lending or "zombie lending" to otherwise defunct plants. To quantify its impact, we develop a model with plant-level heterogeneity, calibrate it based on the results of plant-level productivity estimation, and conduct a counterfactual exercise. The results show that 37% of the actual decline in APG due to inefficient labor reallocation in Japan in the '90s is attributable to "zombie lending."

Suggested Citation

  • KWON Hyeog Ug & NARITA Futoshi & NARITA Machiko, 2009. "Resource Reallocation and Zombie Lending in Japan in the '90s," Discussion papers 09052, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:09052
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2008. "The Sensitivity of Productivity Estimates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 311-328.
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    3. Kyoji Fukao & Young Gak Kim & Hyeog Ug Kwon, 2006. "Plant Turnover and TFP Dynamics in Japanese Manufacturing," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d06-180, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2005. "Unnatural Selection: Perverse Incentives and the Misallocation of Credit in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1144-1166, September.
    5. Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2008. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1943-1977, December.
    6. Kyoji Fukao & Hyeog Ug Kwon, 2006. "Why Did Japan'S Tfp Growth Slow Down In The Lost Decade? An Empirical Analysis Based On Firm-Level Data Of Manufacturing Firms," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 57(2), pages 195-228.
    7. Diego Restuccia & Richard Rogerson, 2008. "Policy Distortions and Aggregate Productivity with Heterogeneous Plants," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(4), pages 707-720, October.
    8. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-1297, November.
    10. FUKAO Kyoji & HAMAGATA Sumio & INUI Tomohiko & ITO Keiko & Hyeog Ug KWON & MAKINO Tatsuji & MIYAGAWA Tsutomu & NAKANISHI Yasuo & TOKUI Joji, 2007. "Estimation Procedures and TFP Analysis of the JIP Database 2006 Provisional Version," Discussion papers 07003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. James Levinsohn & Amil Petrin, 2003. "Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 317-341.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ichiro Muto & Nao Sudo & Shunichi Yoneyama, "undated". "Productivity Slowdown in Japan's Lost Decades: How Much of It Can Be Attributed to Damaged Balance Sheets?," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 16-E-3, Bank of Japan.
    2. Andreas Jobst & Huidan Huidan Lin, 2016. "Negative Interest Rate Policy (NIRP); Implications for Monetary Transmission and Bank Profitability in the Euro Area," IMF Working Papers 16/172, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Kaoru Hosono & Miho Takizawa, 2012. "Do Financial Frictions Matter as a Source of Misallocation? Evidence from Japan," Discussion papers ron246, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan.
    4. Waikei R Lam & Jongsoon Shin, 2012. "What Role Can Financial Policies Play in Revitalizing SMEs in Japan?," IMF Working Papers 12/291, International Monetary Fund.
    5. HOSONO Kaoru & TAKIZAWA Miho, 2015. "Misallocation and Establishment Dynamics," Discussion papers 15011, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    6. repec:eee:jpolmo:v:39:y:2017:i:6:p:1102-1116 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Julien Hanoteau & Virginie Vial, 2014. "Grease or sand the wheel? The effects of individual bribe payments on aggregate productivity growth," EcoMod2014 6685, EcoMod.
    8. Atsuyuki Kato, 2012. "Productivity, returns to scale and product differentiation in the retail trade industry: an empirical analysis using Japanese firm-level data," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 345-353, December.

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