Two-Sided Platforms: Pricing and Social Efficiency
This paper models two-sided market platforms, which connect third-party suppliers (developers) of many different products and services to users who demand a variety of these products. From a positive perspective, our model provides a simple explanation for the stark differences in platform pricing structures observed across a range of industries, including software for computers and an increasing number of electronic devices, videogames, digital media, etc. We show that the optimal platform pricing structure shifts towards making a larger share of profits on developers when users have a stronger preference for variety and also when there is uncertainty with respect to the availability, or a limited supply, of third-party (high-quality) products. From a normative perspective, we show that the increasingly popular public policy presumption that open platforms are inherently more efficient than proprietary ones -in terms of induced product diversity, user adoption and total social welfare- is not justified in our framework. The key welfare tradeoff is between the extent to which a proprietary platform internalizes business-stealing, product diversity and indirect network effects and the two-sided deadweight loss it creates through monopoly pricing.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.rieti.go.jp/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Josh Lerner & Jean Tirole, 2002.
"Efficient Patent Pools,"
NBER Working Papers
9175, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Triole, 2002.
"Platform Competition in Two Sided Markets,"
FMG Discussion Papers
dp409, Financial Markets Group.
- Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2003. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," IDEI Working Papers 152, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Triole, 2002. "Platform competition in two sided markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24929, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Jeffrey Church & Neil Gandal & David Krause, 2003.
"Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities,"
- Church Jeffrey & Gandal Neil & Krause David, 2008. "Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(3), pages 1-22, September.
- Church, Jeffrey & Gandal, Neil & Krause, David, 2003. "Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities," CEPR Discussion Papers 3738, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Marc Rysman, 2004. "Competition Between Networks: A�Study of the Market for Yellow�Pages," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 71(2), pages 483-512, 04.
- Spence, Michael, 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(2), pages 217-35, June.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & Michael D. Whinston, 1986. "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(1), pages 48-58, Spring.
- Simon P. Anderson & Stephen Coate, 2003.
"Market Provision of Broadcasting: A Welfare Analysis,"
Virginia Economics Online Papers
358, University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
- Simon P. Anderson & Stephen Coate, 2005. "Market Provision of Broadcasting: A Welfare Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(4), pages 947-972.
- Michael R. Baye & John Morgan, 2001. "Information Gatekeepers on the Internet and the Competitiveness of Homogeneous Product Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 454-474, June.
- David S. Evans & Andrei Hagiu & Richard Schmalensee, 2004.
"A Survey of the Economic Role of Software Platforms in Computer-Based Industries,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1314, CESifo Group Munich.
- David S. Evans & Andrei Hagiu & Richard Schmalensee, 2004. "A Survey Of The Economic Role Of Software Platforms In Computer - Based Industries," Discussion papers 04032, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
- Richard Schmalensee, 2001.
"Payment Systems and Interchange Fees,"
NBER Working Papers
8256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stahl, Dale O, II, 1988. "Bertrand Competition for Inputs and Walrasian Outcomes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(1), pages 189-201, March.
- Pashigian, B Peter & Gould, Eric D, 1998. "Internalizing Externalities: The Pricing of Space in Shopping Malls," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 115-42, April.
- Andrei Hagiu, 2004. "Two-Sided Platforms: Pricing and Social Efficiency - Extensions," Discussion papers 04036, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Mark Armstrong, 2006.
"Competition in two‐sided markets,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 668-691, 09.
- Wright, Julian, 2003. "Optimal card payment systems," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 587-612, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:04035. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (NUKATANI Sorahiko)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.