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Do Information and Communication Technologies Empower Female Workers? Firm-Level Evidence from Viet Nam


  • Natalie Chun
  • Heiwai Tang


This paper studies the effects of firms’ investments in information and communication technologies (ICT) on their demand for female and skilled workers. Using the gradual liberalization of the broadband Internet sector across provinces from 2006 to 2009 as a source of exogenous variation to identify the causal impacts of ICT, it finds evidence from the country’s comprehensive enterprise survey data that firms’ adoption of broadband Internet and other related ICT increased their relative demand for female and college-educated workers. The effect of ICT on firms’ female employment is particularly strong among the college-educated workers, and is stronger in industries that are more dependent on highly manual and physical tasks.

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  • Natalie Chun & Heiwai Tang, 2018. "Do Information and Communication Technologies Empower Female Workers? Firm-Level Evidence from Viet Nam," Working Papers id:12804, eSocialSciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:12804
    Note: Institutional Papers

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ogutu, Sylvester Ochieng & Okello, Julius Juma & Otieno, David Jakinda, 2014. "Impact of Information and Communication Technology-Based Market Information Services on Smallholder Farm Input Use and Productivity: The Case of Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 311-321.
    2. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2016. "The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 8(1), pages 405-434, October.
    3. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2016. "The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 8(1), pages 405-434, October.
    4. Mark M. Pitt & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Mohammad Nazmul Hassan, 2012. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3531-3560, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bahia, Kalvin & Castells, Pau & Cruz, Genaro & Masaki, Takaaki & Pedrós, Xavier & Pfutze, Tobias & Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos & Winkler, Hernan, 2020. "The Welfare Effects of Mobile Broadband Internet: Evidence from Nigeria," IZA Discussion Papers 13219, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Jain Ritika, 2021. "Information and Communication Technology Adoption and the Demand for Female Labor: The Case of Indian Industry," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 21(2), pages 695-722, April.
    3. Bahia, Kalvin & Castells, Pau & Cruz, Genaro & Masaki, Takaaki & Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos & Sanfelice, Viviane, 2021. "Mobile Broadband Internet, Poverty and Labor Outcomes in Tanzania," IZA Discussion Papers 14720, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Hermann Ndoya & Simplice A. Asongu, 2022. "Digital divide, globalization and income inequality in sub-Saharan African countries: analysing cross-country heterogeneity," Social Responsibility Journal, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 20(1), pages 1-19, October.
    5. Fang, Lan & Quan, Yurong & Mao, Hui & Chen, Shaojian, 2022. "The Information Communication Technology and Off-farm Employment of Rural Laborers: An Analysis Based on the Micro Data of China Family Panel Studies," 2022 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Anaheim, California 322088, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    6. Niu, Meng & Wang, Zhenguo & Zhang, Yabin, 2022. "How information and communication technology drives (routine and non-routine) jobs: Structural path and decomposition analysis for China," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1).
    7. Ndoya, Hermann & Okere, Donald & Belomo, Marie laure & Atangana, Melissa, 2023. "Does ICTs decrease the spread of informal economy in Africa?," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(2).
    8. Chun, Natalie & Tang, Heiwai, 2018. "Do Information and Communication Technologies Empower Female Workers? Firm-Level Evidence from Viet Nam," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 545, Asian Development Bank.
    9. Kusumawardhani, Niken & Pramana, Rezanti & Saputri, Nurmala Selly & Suryadarma, Daniel, 2023. "Heterogeneous impact of internet availability on female labor market outcomes in an emerging economy: Evidence from Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 164(C).
    10. Nkoumou Ngoa, Gaston Brice & Song, Jacques Simon, 2021. "Female participation in African labor markets: The role of information and communication technologies," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(9).

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