IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Income-Related Inequity in the Use of GP Services: A Comparison of Ireland and Scotland

  • Layte, Richard
  • Nolan, Anne

Equity of access to health care is a key component of national and international health policy. The Irish health-care system is unusual in requiring the majority of the population to pay the full cost of GP care at the point of use. In contrast, all Scottish residents are entitled to free GP care at the point of use. Using nationally representative micro-data on Irish and Scottish children, we find that the distribution of GP care in Ireland favours those on lower incomes (i.e., 'pro-poor'), but that there is no significant difference in the distribution of GP care across income groups in Scotland. Focusing just on children who pay for GP care in Ireland, we find some evidence for a significant 'pro-rich' distribution of GP visits.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.esri.ie/pubs/WP454.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in its series Papers with number WP454.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Apr 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp454
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2

Phone: (353-1) 863 2000
Fax: (353-1) 863 2100
Web page: http://www.esri.ie
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Chiappori, P.A. & Durand, F. & Geoffard, P.Y., 1998. "Moral Hazard and the Demand for Physician Services: First Lessons from a French Natural Experiment," DELTA Working Papers 98-05, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  2. David Madden & Anne Nolan & Brian Nolan, 2005. "GP reimbursement and visiting behaviour in Ireland," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(10), pages 1047-1060.
  3. Van Doorslaer, Eddy & Clarke, Philip & Savage, Elizabeth & Hall, Jane, 2008. "Horizontal inequities in Australia's mixed public/private health care system," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 97-108, April.
  4. Ellen van de Poel & Eddy van Doorslaer & Owen O'Donnell, 2011. "Measurement of Inequity in Health Care with Heterogeneous Response of Use to Need," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-155/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Barros, Pedro Luis Pita & Machado, Matilde Pinto & Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna, 2006. "Moral Hazard and the Demand for Health Services: A Matching Estimator Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 5488, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Nolan, Brian, 1993. "Economic incentives, health status and health services utilisation," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 151-169, July.
  7. Winfried Pohlmeier & Volker Ulrich, 1995. "An Econometric Model of the Two-Part Decisionmaking Process in the Demand for Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 339-361.
  8. Gorecki, Paul K. & Nolan, Anne & Brick, Aoife & Lyons, Seán, 2012. "Pharmaceuticals Delivery in Ireland. Getting a Bigger Bang for the Buck," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number RS24.
  9. Nolan, Anne & Nolan, Brian, 2007. "The Utilisation of GP Services," Book Chapters, in: Nolan, Brian (ed.), The Provision and Use of Health Services, Health Inequalities and Health and Social Gain Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  10. Layte, Richard & Nolan, Brian, 2003. "Equity in the Utilization of Health Care in Ireland," Papers HRBWP02, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  11. Case, Anne & Fertig, Angela & Paxson, Christina, 2005. "The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 365-389, March.
  12. Deb, Partha & Trivedi, Pravin K., 2002. "The structure of demand for health care: latent class versus two-part models," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 601-625, July.
  13. Teresa Bago d'Uva & Andrew M. Jones & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2007. "Measurement of Horizontal Inequity in Health Care Utilisation using European Panel Data," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-059/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Teresa Bago d'Uva & Maarten Lindeboom & Owen O'Donnell & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2011. "Education‐related inequity in healthcare with heterogeneous reporting of health," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 174(3), pages 639-664, 07.
  15. Janet Currie & Jonathan Gruber, 1995. "Health Insurance Eligibility, Utilization of Medical care, and Child Health," NBER Working Papers 5052, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Sogaard, Jes & Andersson, Fredrik & Jonsson, Bengt, 1992. "An econometric analysis of health care expenditure: A cross-section study of the OECD countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 63-84, May.
  17. Layte, Richard & Nolan, Anne & McGee, Hannah & O'Hanlon, Ann, 2009. "Do consultation charges deter general practitioner use among older people? A natural experiment," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(8), pages 1432-1438, April.
  18. Currie, Janet & Decker, Sandra & Lin, Wanchuan, 2008. "Has public health insurance for older children reduced disparities in access to care and health outcomes?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1567-1581, December.
  19. Eddy van Doorslaer & Xander Koolman, 2004. "Explaining the differences in income-related health inequalities across European countries," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 609-628.
  20. A. Nolan & B. Nolan, 2008. "Eligibility for free GP care, “need” and GP visiting in Ireland," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 9(2), pages 157-163, May.
  21. Carol Propper & John Rigg & Simon Burgess, 2007. "Child health: evidence on the roles of family income and maternal mental health from a UK birth cohort," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(11), pages 1245-1269.
  22. Samantha Smith, 2010. "The Irish ‘health basket’: a basket case?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 11(3), pages 343-350, June.
  23. Aoife Brick & Anne Nolan & Jacqueline O’Reilly & Samantha Smith, 2012. "Conflicting Financial Incentives in the Irish Health-Care System," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 43(2), pages 273–301.
  24. Culyer, A. J. & Wagstaff, Adam, 1993. "Equity and equality in health and health care," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 431-457, December.
  25. Tussing, A. Dale, 1985. "Irish Medical Care Resources: An Economic Analysis," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number GRS126.
  26. Smith, Samantha & Normand, Charles, 2011. "Equity in health care: the Irish perspective," Health Economics, Policy and Law, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(02), pages 205-217, March.
  27. Eddy van Doorslaer & Xander Koolman & Andrew M. Jones, 2004. "Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 629-647.
  28. Santos Silva, Joao M. C. & Windmeijer, Frank, 2001. "Two-part multiple spell models for health care demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 104(1), pages 67-89, August.
  29. Gannon, Brenda & Layte, Richard & McGregor, Pat & Madden, David & Nolan, Anne & O'Neill, Ciaran & Smith, Samantha, 2007. "The Provision and Use of Health Services, Health Inequalities and Health and Social Gain," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number BMI196 edited by Nolan, Brian.
  30. Nolan, Anne & Smith, Samantha, 2012. "The effect of differential eligibility for free GP services on GP utilisation in Ireland," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(10), pages 1644-1651.
  31. Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2000. "Measuring and Testing for Inequity in the Delivery of Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 716-733.
  32. Lu, Jui-fen R. & Leung, Gabriel M. & Kwon, Soonman & Tin, Keith Y.K. & Van Doorslaer, Eddy & O'Donnell, Owen, 2007. "Horizontal equity in health care utilization evidence from three high-income Asian economies," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 199-212, January.
  33. Sergi Jiménez-Martín & José M. Labeaga & Maite Martínez-Granado, 2002. "Latent class versus two-part models in the demand for physician services across the European Union," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(4), pages 301-321.
  34. Hurd, Michael D. & McGarry, Kathleen, 1997. "Medical insurance and the use of health care services by the elderly," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 129-154, April.
  35. Patrick Royston, 2009. "Multiple imputation of missing values: Further update of ice, with an emphasis on categorical variables," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(3), pages 466-477, September.
  36. Andrew Jones & Ángel López Nicolás, 2006. "Allowing for heterogeneity in the decomposition of measures of inequality in health," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 347-365, December.
  37. Carol Propper & Richard Upward, 1992. "Need, equity and the NHS: the distribution of health care expenditure 1974-87," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 13(2), pages 1-21, February.
  38. Matthew Sutton, 2002. "Vertical and horizontal aspects of socio-economic inequity in general practitioner contacts in Scotland," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 537-549.
  39. Currie, Janet, 1995. " Socio-Economic Status and Child Health: Does Public Health Insurance Narrow the Gap?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 97(4), pages 603-20, December.
  40. Richard Layte, 2007. "Equity in the Utilisation of Hospital Inpatient Services in Ireland? An Improved Approach to the Measurement of Health Need," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 38(2), pages 191-210.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp454. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sarah Burns)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.