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Multiple imputation of missing values: Further update of ice, with an emphasis on categorical variables


  • Patrick Royston

    () (MRC Clinical Trials Unit and University College London)


Multiple imputation of missing data continues to be a topic of considerable interest and importance to applied researchers. In this article, the ice package for multiple imputation by chained equations (also known as fully con- ditional specification) is further updated. Special attention is paid to categorical variables. The relationship between ice and the new multiple-imputation system in Stata 11 is clarified.

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  • Patrick Royston, 2009. "Multiple imputation of missing values: Further update of ice, with an emphasis on categorical variables," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(3), pages 466-477, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:tsj:stataj:v:9:y:2009:i:3:p:466-477

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Patrick Royston & John B. Carlin & Ian R. White, 2009. "Multiple imputation of missing values: New features for mim," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(2), pages 252-264, June.
    2. Patrick Royston, 2004. "Multiple imputation of missing values," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 227-241, September.
    3. John B. Carlin & John C. Galati & Patrick Royston, 2008. "A new framework for managing and analyzing multiply imputed data in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(1), pages 49-67, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. White, Ian R. & Daniel, Rhian & Royston, Patrick, 2010. "Avoiding bias due to perfect prediction in multiple imputation of incomplete categorical variables," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(10), pages 2267-2275, October.
    2. Salvatore Farace & Fernanda Mazzotta, 2015. "The effect of human capital and networks on knowledge and innovation in SMEs," Journal of Innovation Economics, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(1), pages 39-71.
    3. Mark E. Mcgovern, 2013. "Still Unequal at Birth: Birth Weight,Socio-economic Status and Outcomes at Age 9," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 44(1), pages 53-84.
    4. Richard Layte & Anne Nolan, 2015. "Income-related inequity in the use of GP services by children: a comparison of Ireland and Scotland," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 16(5), pages 489-506, June.
    5. Bzostek, Sharon & Sastry, Narayan & Goldman, Noreen & Pebley, Anne & Duffy, Denise, 2016. "Using vignettes to rethink Latino-white disparities in self-rated health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 46-65.
    6. Goosby, Bridget J. & Cheadle, Jacob E. & McDade, Thomas, 2016. "Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 102-109.
    7. Kristian Kleinke & Jost Reinecke, 2013. "Multiple imputation of incomplete zero-inflated count data," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 67(3), pages 311-336, August.
    8. Wen, Ming & Su, Shaobing & Li, Xiaoming & Lin, Danhua, 2015. "Positive youth development in rural China: The role of parental migration," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 261-269.
    9. Choi, HwaJung & Burgard, Sarah & Elo, Irma T. & Heisler, Michele, 2015. "Are older adults living in more equal counties healthier than older adults living in more unequal counties? A propensity score matching approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 82-90.
    10. Jaenichen, Ursula & Sakshaug, Joseph, 2012. "Multiple imputation of household income in the first wave of PASS," FDZ Methodenreport 201202_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    11. Layte, Richard & Nolan, Anne, 2013. "Income-Related Inequity in the Use of GP Services: A Comparison of Ireland and Scotland," Papers WP454, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    12. Cordero, José Manuel & Gil, María & Pedraja Chaparro, Francisco, 2016. "Exploring the effect of financial literacy courses on student achievement: a cross-country approach using PISA 2012 data," MPRA Paper 75474, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Terri Friedline & Stacia West, 2016. "Financial Education is not Enough: Millennials May Need Financial Capability to Demonstrate Healthier Financial Behaviors," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 649-671, December.
    14. repec:eee:socmed:v:189:y:2017:i:c:p:105-113 is not listed on IDEAS


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