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Institutions and the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations

  • Niels Bosma
  • Sander Wennekers
  • F. Stam

In this paper, we argue that institutions affect the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations. This is confirmed by empirical analysis of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data on early-stage (independent) entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial employee behavior. Most comparative international research on entrepreneurship has focused on independent new ventures and has ignored the pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities within established organizations (intrapreneurship). However, in developed economies the prevalence of entrepreneurial employee behavior is on average found to be in the same order of magnitude as that of independent entrepreneurial activity. At the same time prevalence rates of these two types of entrepreneurship vary substantially between countries. We analyze the allocation of entrepreneurial activity across early-stage independent entrepreneurial activity (entrepreneurship in new organizations) and entrepreneurial employee activity (entrepreneurship in established organizations) in 36 countries, taking into account effects of the level of economic development as well as the formal and informal institutional setting. We find that labor market institutions and the extent to which societies value autonomy affect the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations.

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Paper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H201213.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 11 Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h201213
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  1. Philipp Koellinger, 2008. "Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 21-37, June.
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  12. Sander Wennekers & André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-14, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  13. Charles Brown & James L. Medoff, 1989. "The Employer Size-Wage Effect," NBER Working Papers 2870, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Ute Stephan & Lorraine M Uhlaner, 2010. "Performance-based vs socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(8), pages 1347-1364, October.
  15. Amit, Raphael & Muller, Eitan & Cockburn, Iain, 1995. "Opportunity costs and entrepreneurial activity," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 95-106, March.
  16. N.S. Bosma & E. Stam & S. Wennekers, 2011. "Intrapreneurship versus independent entrepreneurship: A cross-national analysis of individual entrepreneurial behavior," Working Papers 11-04, Utrecht School of Economics.
  17. Pia Arenius & Maria Minniti, 2005. "Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 233-247, 02.
  18. Parker, Simon C, 2009. "Why do small firms produce the entrepreneurs?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 484-494, June.
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