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Simple tests for models of dependence between multiple financial time series, with applications to U.S. equity returns and exchange rates

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  • Chen, Xiaohong
  • Fan, Yanqin
  • Patton, Andrew J.

Abstract

Evidence that asset returns are more highly correlated during volatile markets and during market downturns (see Longin and Solnik, 2001, and Ang and Chen, 2002) has lead some researchers to propose alternative models of dependence. In this paper we develop two simple goodness-of-fit tests for such models. We use these tests to determine whether the multivariate Normal or the Student’s t copula models are compatible with U.S. equity return and exchange rate data. Both tests are robust to specifications of marginal distributions, and are based on the multivariate probability integral transform and kernel density estimation. The first test is consistent but requires the estimation of a multivariate density function and is recommended for testing the dependence structure between a small number of assets. The second test may not be consistent against all alternatives but it requires kernel estimation of only a univariate density function, and hence is useful for testing the dependence structure between a large number of assets. We justify our tests for both observable multivariate strictly stationary time series and for standardized innovations of GARCH models. A simulation study demonstrates the efficacy of both tests. When applied to equity return data and exchange rate return data, we find strong evidence against the normal copula, but little evidence against the more flexible Student’s t copula.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, Xiaohong & Fan, Yanqin & Patton, Andrew J., 2004. "Simple tests for models of dependence between multiple financial time series, with applications to U.S. equity returns and exchange rates," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24681, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  • Handle: RePEc:ehl:lserod:24681
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Y. Malevergne & D. Sornette, 2003. "Testing the Gaussian copula hypothesis for financial assets dependences," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 231-250.
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    3. Yanqin Fan & Paul Rilstone, 2001. "A Consistent Test for the Parametric Specification of the Hazard Function," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 2(1), pages 77-96, May.
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    5. Frederick C. Mills, 1927. "The Behavior of Prices," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number mill27-1, October.
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    7. Jean-David Fermanian, 2003. "Goodness of Fit Tests for Copulas," Working Papers 2003-34, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    8. Tse, Y. K., 2000. "A test for constant correlations in a multivariate GARCH model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 107-127, September.
    9. Fan, Yanqin, 1994. "Testing the Goodness of Fit of a Parametric Density Function by Kernel Method," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(02), pages 316-356, June.
    10. Ang, Andrew & Chen, Joseph, 2002. "Asymmetric correlations of equity portfolios," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 443-494, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Heinen, Andreas & Rengifo, Erick, 2007. "Multivariate autoregressive modeling of time series count data using copulas," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 564-583, September.
    2. Dominique Guegan & Pierre-André Maugis, 2010. "An Econometric Study of Vine Copulas," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 10040, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    3. Sim, Nicholas, 2016. "Modeling the dependence structures of financial assets through the Copula Quantile-on-Quantile approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 31-45.
    4. Li, Lihui & Wen, Tao, 2013. "Estimation of C-MGARCH models based on the MBP method," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 665-673.
    5. Wolfgang Härdle & Ostap Okhrin, 2010. "De copulis non est disputandum," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer;German Statistical Society, vol. 94(1), pages 1-31, March.
    6. Andrew J. Patton, 2006. "Estimation of multivariate models for time series of possibly different lengths," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(2), pages 147-173.
    7. Gonzalo, J. & Olmo, J., 2007. "The impact of heavy tails and comovements in downside-risk diversification," Working Papers 07/02, Department of Economics, City University London.
    8. Okhrin, Ostap & Okhrin, Yarema & Schmid, Wolfgang, 2013. "On the structure and estimation of hierarchical Archimedean copulas," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 173(2), pages 189-204.
    9. Matthias Fischer & Christian Köck, "undated". "Multivariate Copula Models at Work: Dependence Structure of Energie Prices," Energy and Environmental Modeling 2007 24000014, EcoMod.
    10. Roch, Oriol & Alegre, Antonio, 2006. "Testing the bivariate distribution of daily equity returns using copulas. An application to the Spanish stock market," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 1312-1329, November.
    11. Xiangdong Long & Liangjun Su & Aman Ullah, 2011. "Estimation and Forecasting of Dynamic Conditional Covariance: A Semiparametric Multivariate Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 109-125, January.
    12. Leonidas Tsiaras, 2010. "Dynamic Models of Exchange Rate Dependence Using Option Prices and Historical Returns," CREATES Research Papers 2010-35, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    13. Mitchell, James, 2013. "The Recalibrated and Copula Opinion Pools," EMF Research Papers 02, Economic Modelling and Forecasting Group.
    14. Fantazzini, Dean, 2011. "Analysis of multidimensional probability distributions with copula functions. III," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 24(4), pages 100-130.
    15. Mark Trede & Cornelia Savu, 2013. "Do stock returns have an Archimedean copula?," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(8), pages 1764-1778, August.
    16. Ostap Okhrin, 2010. "Fitting high-dimensional Copulae to Data," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2010-022, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    17. Grundke, Peter & Polle, Simone, 2012. "Crisis and risk dependencies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 223(2), pages 518-528.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Copulas; Correlation; Normal copula; Student’s t copula; Nonlinear comovements; Goodness-of-fit tests; GARCH.;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

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