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Do slum upgrading programmes improve living standards? Evidence from Djibouti


  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps

    () (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine)

  • Laure Pasquier-Doumer

    () (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine)

  • Charlotte Guénard

    () (UMR Développement and Sociétés, Université Paris 1-IEDES, IRD)


Impact studies of urban upgrading projects are few and far between. This article presents the case of an integrated urban development project in a Djibouti slum. It uses two difference-in-differences estimation techniques, one to compare the project zone with a control zone and the other to compare individuals and households within the project zone based on the extent to which the project has connected them. We find that the project has had a not-inconsiderable impact on tenure regularisation, but no impact on housing or property values. In employment, the project has had no impact on the labour supply, but has nonetheless prompted the emergence of self-employed activities. Lastly, near the new roads, poorer households are crowded out by much better-off households.

Suggested Citation

  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps & Laure Pasquier-Doumer & Charlotte Guénard, 2016. "Do slum upgrading programmes improve living standards? Evidence from Djibouti," Working Papers DT/2016/09, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201609

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    More about this item


    slums; urban project; impact analysis; employment; housing; Djibouti.;

    JEL classification:

    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy

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