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A methodology for population projections: an application to Spain


  • Alonso, Andrés M.
  • Peña, Daniel
  • Rodríguez, Julio


This paper looks at projections for the Spanish population by sex and age for the period of 2005 to 2050. These were carried out using forecasts for birth and mortality rates, and migration. These rates are calculated using two main sources of information. First, a multivariate time series model was applied for the series of variables from the 1970 to 2001 period. Second a model was estimated for life expectancy and for a synthetic fertility index. Both sources of information were combined to obtain the forecasts for the rates. Immigration rates are predicted by assuming three possible scenarios based on the maximum proportion that immigrants will represent in the Spanish population. With these variables a structure of ages and sex for the Spanish population is estimated using a cohort component model.

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  • Alonso, Andrés M. & Peña, Daniel & Rodríguez, Julio, 2008. "A methodology for population projections: an application to Spain," DES - Working Papers. Statistics and Econometrics. WS ws084512, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Estadística.
  • Handle: RePEc:cte:wsrepe:ws084512

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gonzalo, Jesus & Granger, Clive W J, 1995. "Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 27-35, January.
    2. Booth, Heather, 2006. "Demographic forecasting: 1980 to 2005 in review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 547-581.
    3. Hyndman, Rob J. & Booth, Heather, 2008. "Stochastic population forecasts using functional data models for mortality, fertility and migration," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 323-342.
    4. Ortega, Jose Antonio & Poncela, Pilar, 2005. "Joint forecasts of Southern European fertility rates with non-stationary dynamic factor models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 539-550.
    5. repec:sae:niesru:v:167:y::i:1:p:106-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Namkee Ahn & Juan Ramón García & José A. Herce, "undated". "Demographic Uncertainty and Health Care Expenditure in Spain," Working Papers 2005-07, FEDEA.
    7. Pena, Daniel & Poncela, Pilar, 2004. "Forecasting with nonstationary dynamic factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 291-321, April.
    8. Robert McNown & Andrei Rogers, 1989. "Forecasting Mortality: A Parameterized Time Series Approach," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 26(4), pages 645-660, November.
    9. Pena, Daniel & Redondas, Dolores, 2006. "Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 688-709, February.
    10. Nico Keilman & Dinh Quang Pham & Arve Hetland, 2002. "Why population forecasts should be probabilistic - illustrated by the case of Norway," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 6(15), pages 409-454, May.
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    More about this item


    Population projections;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts


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