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Regulatory and Environmental Effects on Public Transit Efficiency. A Mixed DEA-SFA Approach

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to account for the impact of statistical noise and exogenous regulatory and environmental factors on the efficiency of public transit systems in a DEA-based framework. To this end, we implement a three-stage DEA-SFA mixed approach based on Fried et al. (2002) using a 1993-1999 panel of 42 Italian public transit companies. This allows us to decompose input-specific DEA inefficiency measures into three components: exogenous effects, pure managerial inefficiency, and statistical noise. First, the initial evaluation of producer performance is carried out using conventional variable returns to scale DEA (Banker et al., 1984). Second, a SFA approach (Battese and Coelli, 1992) is used to regress single input slacks on subsidies regulation (cost-plus versus fixed-price contracts) and a set of environmental variables including network speed and user density. Finally, third stage re-runs DEA on inputs purged of both exogenous effects and statistical noise. Results are such that adjusting for the type of regulatory scheme, environmental conditions, and statistical noise increases average efficiency in the industry and reduces dispersion among firms. Furthermore, the implementation of fixed-price subsidies is found to enhance efficiency in the usage of “drivers” and “materials and services” inputs. Such a result sheds some light on the determinants of input-specific efficiency differentials in the industry, improving the existing evidence on mean overall cost efficiency (e.g. Gagnepain e Ivaldi, 2002; Piacenza, 2006). As a policy implication, it is confirmed the relevance of regula tion aimed at replacing cost-plus subsidization mechanisms with high-powered incentive contracts as well as improving operating conditions of public transport networks.

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  • Beniamina Buzzo Margari & Fabrizio Erbetta & Carmelo Petraglia & Massimiliano Piacenza, 2006. "Regulatory and Environmental Effects on Public Transit Efficiency. A Mixed DEA-SFA Approach," CERIS Working Paper 200613, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY -NOW- Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
  • Handle: RePEc:csc:cerisp:200613
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    Cited by:

    1. Cambini Carlo & Filippini Massimo & Piacenza Massimiliano & Vannoni Davide, 2011. "Corporatization and Firm Performance: Evidence from Publicly-Provided Local Utilities," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 191-213, July.
    2. Obeng, K. & Sakano, R. & Naanwaab, C., 2016. "Understanding overall output efficiency in public transit systems: The roles of input regulations, perceived budget and input subsidies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 133-150.
    3. Andrea Boitani & Marcella Nicolini & Carlo Scarpa, 2013. "Do competition and ownership matter? Evidence from local public transport in Europe," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(11), pages 1419-1434, April.
    4. Chiou, Yu-Chiun & Lan, Lawrence W. & Yen, Barbara T.H., 2012. "Route-based data envelopment analysis models," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 415-425.
    5. Chen, Kaihua, 2014. "Weighted Additive DEA Models Associated with Dataset Standardization Techniques," MPRA Paper 55072, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:eee:trapol:v:62:y:2018:i:c:p:48-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Axel Gautier & Anne Yvrande-Billon, 2013. "Contract Renewal as an Incentive Device. An Application to the French Urban Public Transport Sector," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 4(1).
    8. Vaninsky, Alexander, 2010. "Prospective national and regional environmental performance: Boundary estimations using a combined data envelopment – stochastic frontier analysis approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3657-3665.
    9. Simona Bigerna & Paolo Polinori, 2010. "Ambiente operativo ed efficienza nel settore del trasporto pubblico locale in Italia," SCIENZE REGIONALI, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2010(3), pages 85-118.
    10. Giovanni Fraquelli, 2007. "Optimal Scale and Efficiency of the Italian Public Utilities," L'industria, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 205-228.
    11. Simona Sanguineti & Alessio Tei, 2012. "L’efficienza delle aziende di Trasporto Pubblico Locale: confronto tra le maggiori realtà italiane," ECONOMIA E DIRITTO DEL TERZIARIO, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2012(3), pages 359-377.
    12. Bracalente, Bruno & Polinori, Paolo, 2010. "L’efficienza tecnico-economica dei servizi pubblici locali: i casi delle farmacie comunali e dei servizi di igiene urbana
      [Technical And Economic Efficiency Of Local Public Services: The Cases Of T
      ," MPRA Paper 34455, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Cinzia Daraio & Marco Diana & Flavia Di Costa & Claudio Leporelli & Giorgio Matteucci & Alberto Nastasi, 2014. "Efficiency and effectiveness in the urban public transport sector: a critical review with directions for future research," DIAG Technical Reports 2014-14, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    14. Mouwen, Arnoud & van Ommeren, Jos, 2016. "The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 78-89.
    15. Wen-Jen Tsay & Cliff J. Huang & Tsu-Tan Fu & I-Lin Ho, 2009. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Censored Stochastic Frontier Models: An Application to the Three-Stage DEA Method," IEAS Working Paper : academic research 09-A003, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    16. Chiou, Yu-Chiun & Lan, Lawrence W. & Yen, Barbara T.H., 2010. "A joint measurement of efficiency and effectiveness for non-storable commodities: Integrated data envelopment analysis approaches," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 201(2), pages 477-489, March.
    17. Avenali, Alessandro & Boitani, Andrea & Catalano, Giuseppe & D’Alfonso, Tiziana & Matteucci, Giorgio, 2016. "Assessing standard costs in local public bus transport: Evidence from Italy," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 164-174.
    18. Tsekouras, Kostas & Chatzistamoulou, Nikos & Kounetas, Kostas & Broadstock, David C., 2016. "Spillovers, path dependence and the productive performance of European transportation sectors in the presence of technology heterogeneity," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 261-274.
    19. Angela Stefania Bergantino & Enrico Musso, 2011. "The role of external factors versus managerial ability in determining seaports’ relative efficiency: An input-by-input analysis through a multi-step approach on a panel of Southern European ports," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 13(2), pages 121-141, June.
    20. Alessandro Avenali & Andrea Boitani & Giuseppe Catalano & Tiziana D'Alfonso & Giorgio Matteucci, 2014. "Un modello per la determinazione del costo standard nei servizi di trasporto pubblico locale su autobus in Italia°," ECONOMIA E POLITICA INDUSTRIALE, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2014(4), pages 181-213.
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    23. Pal, Debdatta & Mitra, Subrata K., 2016. "An application of the directional distance function with the number of accidents as an undesirable output to measure the technical efficiency of state road transport in India," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 1-12.
    24. Gwilliam, Ken, 2008. "A review of issues in transit economics," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 4-22, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Public transit systems; Regulation; Environmental effects; Statistical noise; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA);

    JEL classification:

    • C44 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Operations Research; Statistical Decision Theory
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • L92 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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