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Knowledge Flows, Structure of Innovative Activity and International Specialization

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Abstract

This paper is a first attempt towards the full inclusion of a group of variables greatly studied in the current literature on innovation and industrial economics -such as knowledge links and the structure of competition and collaboration in a sector -into the determinants of the international technological specialization of countries. In particular, the major role of knowledge flows across sectors indicates that knowledge is a key factor affecting specialization and that the currently used notion of inter-sectoral spillovers has to be disentangled in a more detailed way and given a more precise meaning. It also points to that fact that a lot of theses knowledge flows are captured within a country. In particular this paper uses international trade, patent and citation data at a very fine level of disaggregation. It, first, shows that the relationship between international technological and trade specialisation of countries is positive and statistically significant. This extends previous results to a finer level of disaggregation and to a more recent time span. Secondly the determinants of technological specialisation are analysed. In particular the focus has been placed on the knowledge connections among sectors (in terms of patent citations), some key structural features of technological classes related to Schumpeterian competition (such as the concentration and asymmetries in innovative activities and the emergence of new innovators) and the relevance of networks in terms of technological co-operation. These variables have in general positive effects on the international technological specialisation of countries and important differences across sectors in the relevance of the factors affecting international specialisation emerge.

Suggested Citation

  • Franco Malerba & Fabio Montobbio, 2000. "Knowledge Flows, Structure of Innovative Activity and International Specialization," KITeS Working Papers 119, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Nov 2000.
  • Handle: RePEc:cri:cespri:wp119
    Note: This paper is part of the Research Project: Sectoral Systems in Europe - Innovation, Competitiveness and Growth (ESSY). Third Research and Technological Framework Programme, Targeted Socio-Economic Research, TSER
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Malerba, Franco, 2002. "Sectoral systems of innovation and production," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 247-264, February.
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    3. Malerba, Franco, 1992. "Learning by Firms and Incremental Technical Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(413), pages 845-859, July.
    4. Andrea Brasili & Paolo Epifani & Rodolfo Helg, 1999. "On the dynamics of trade patterns," LIUC Papers in Economics 61, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
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    7. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 1995. "Schumpeterian Patterns of Innovation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 47-65, February.
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    13. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 1997. "Technological Regimes and Sectoral Patterns of Innovative Activities," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 83-117.
    14. Antoine Magnier & Joël Toujas-Bernate, 1994. "Technology and trade: Empirical evidences for the major five industrialized countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(3), pages 494-520, September.
    15. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 1996. "Schumpeterian patterns of innovation are technology-specific," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 451-478, May.
    16. Archibugi, Daniele & Pianta, Mario, 1994. "Aggregate Convergence and Sectoral Specialization in Innovation," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 17-33, March.
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    18. Bent Dalum & Keld Laursen & Gert Villumsen, 1998. "Structural Change in OECD Export Specialisation Patterns: de-specialisation and 'stickiness'," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 423-443.
    19. Cantwell, John, 1995. "The Globalisation of Technology: What Remains of the Product Cycle Model?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 155-174, February.
    20. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2000. "Knowledge, Innovation Activities and Industrial Evolution," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 289-313, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Singh, Lakhwinder, 2006. "Innovations, High-Tech Trade and Industrial Development: Theory, Evidence and Policy," WIDER Working Paper Series 027, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Montobbio, Fabio & Rampa, Francesco, 2005. "The impact of technology and structural change on export performance in nine developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 527-547, April.
    3. Ginchev Ivan & Guerraggio Angelo & Rocca Matteo, 2002. "On second-order conditions in vector optimization," Economics and Quantitative Methods qf0218, Department of Economics, University of Insubria.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Technological specialisation; Trade specialisation; Knowledge spillovers; Market structure;

    JEL classification:

    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General

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