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Supermarkets and Planning Regulation

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  • Griffith, Rachel
  • Harmgart, Heike

Abstract

We are interested in evaluating the impact of restrictive planning regulation on entry into the UK grocery retail industry. We estimate a model similar to Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) where we allow for multiple store formats. We find that more restrictive planning regulation reduces the number of large format supermarkets in equilibrium. However, the impact is overstated if variation in demographic characteristics across markets is not also controlled for. Our estimates suggest that restrictive planning regulation leads to a loss to consumers of up to £10m per annum. This cost must be offset against any benefits that arise, e.g. due to reduced congestion.

Suggested Citation

  • Griffith, Rachel & Harmgart, Heike, 2008. "Supermarkets and Planning Regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 6713, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6713
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bliss, Christopher, 1988. "A Theory of Retail Pricing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 375-391, June.
    2. Jeremy I. Bulow & John Geanakoplos & Paul D. Klemperer, 1983. "Multimarket Oligopoly," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 674, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    3. Armstrong, Mark & Vickers, John, 2001. "Competitive Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 579-605, Winter.
    4. Catherine Schaumans & Frank Verboven, 2008. "Entry and regulation: evidence from health care professions," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(4), pages 949-972.
    5. Howard Smith, 2004. "Supermarket Choice and Supermarket Competition in Market Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(1), pages 235-263.
    6. Patrick Bajari & Han Hong & Stephen Ryan, 2004. "Identification and Estimation of Discrete Games of Complete Information," NBER Technical Working Papers 0301, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991. "Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
    8. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Peter C. Reiss, 1987. "Do Entry Conditions Vary across Markets?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3, Specia), pages 833-882.
    9. Bresnahan, Timothy F. & Reiss, Peter C., 1991. "Empirical models of discrete games," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1-2), pages 57-81.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fernando Borraz & Juan Dubra & Daniel Ferrés & Leandro Zipitría, 2014. "Supermarket Entry and the Survival of Small Stores," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 44(1), pages 73-93, February.
    2. Brandão, António & Correia-da-Silva, João & Pinho, Joana, 2014. "Spatial competition between shopping centers," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 234-250.
    3. Fernando Borraz & Juan Dubra & Daniel Ferrés & Leandro Zipitría, 2013. "Supermarket Entry and The Survival of Small Stores," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1303, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..
    4. Luis Orea, 2010. "The effect of legal barriers to entry in the Spanish retail market: a local market approach," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 193(2), pages 49-74, June.
    5. Nishida, Mitsukuni & Gil, Ricard, 2014. "Regulation, enforcement, and entry: Evidence from the Spanish local TV industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 11-23.
    6. Jonathan Haskel & Raffaella Sadun, 2012. "Regulation and UK Retailing Productivity: Evidence from Microdata," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 79(315), pages 425-448, July.
    7. Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2011. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(551), pages 145-170, March.
    8. Paul C. Cheshire & Christian A. L. Hilber & Ioannis Kaplanis, 2015. "Land use regulation and productivity—land matters: evidence from a UK supermarket chain," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-73.
    9. Raffaella Sadun, 2015. "Does Planning Regulation Protect Independent Retailers?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(5), pages 983-1001, December.
    10. Gómez-Lobo, Andrés & Jiménez, Juan Luis & Perdiguero , Jordi, 2015. "The entry of a hard discount supermarket: price effects," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 31, pages 143-154.
    11. Susanne Prantl & Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2009. "How does entry regulation influence entry into self-employment and occupational mobility?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-034, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    12. Mitsukuni Nishida, 2012. "Estimating a Model of Strategic Network Choice: The Convenience-Store Industry in Okinawa," Economics Working Paper Archive 594, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
    13. Susanne Prantl & Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2009. "How does entry regulation influence entry into self-employment and occupational mobility?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(4), pages 769-802, October.
    14. Ricard Gil & Mitsukuni Nishida, 2012. "Does Regulation Drive Competition? Evidence from the Spanish Local TV Industry," Working Papers 12-05, NET Institute.
    15. Javier Campos & Juan Luis Jiménez & Ancor Suárez-Alemán, 2012. "“Not always sunny in paradise: prices and brand diversity in touristic areas supermarkets”," IREA Working Papers 201211, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised May 2012.
    16. repec:eee:touman:v:36:y:2013:i:c:p:435-440 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Paul Cheshire & Christian A. L. Hilber & Ioannis Kaplanis, 2011. "Evaluating the Effects of Planning Policies on the Retail Sector: Or do Town Centre First Policies Deliver the Goods?," SERC Discussion Papers 0066, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    18. Abe, Naohito & Kawaguchi, Daiji, 2010. "Incumbent's price response to new entry: The case of Japanese supermarkets," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 196-212, June.
    19. Paul C. Cheshire & Christian A. L. Hilber & Ioannis Kaplanis, 2012. "Evidence from a UK supermarket chain," Working Papers 2012/15, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    20. Eliana Viviano & Luciana Aimone Gigio & Emanuela Ciapanna & Daniele Coin & Fabrizio Colonna & Federica Lagna & Raffaele Santioni, 2012. "The retail trade sector and the food industry in Italy," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 119, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    21. Joan-Ramon Borrell & Laura Fernández-Villadangos, 2009. "Assessing excess profits from different entry regulations," Working Papers XREAP2009-03, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Apr 2009.
    22. Mitsukuni Nishida, 2014. "The costs of zoning regulations in retail chains: the case of the City Planning Act of 1968 in Japan," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 305-328, June.
    23. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Braakmann, Nils & Gonzalo-Almorox, Eduardo & Wildman, John, 2017. "The effect of house prices on the long-term care market: Evidence from England," MPRA Paper 81987, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    24. Ferrari, Stijn & Verboven, Frank, 2010. "Empirical analysis of markets with free and restricted entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 403-406, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    entry; land use regulation; retail;

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L52 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

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