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Two Tales on Resale

Author

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  • Höeffler, Felix
  • Schmidt, Klaus M.

Abstract

In some markets vertically integrated firms sell directly to final customers but also to independent downstream firms with whom they then compete on the downstream market. It is often argued that resellers intensify competition and benefit consumers, in particular when wholesale prices are regulated. However, we show that (i) resale may increase prices and make consumers worse off and that (ii) standard 'retail minus X regulation' may increase prices and harm consumers. Our analysis suggests that this is more likely if the number of integrated firms is small, the degree of product differentiation is low, and/or if competition is spatial.

Suggested Citation

  • Höeffler, Felix & Schmidt, Klaus M., 2007. "Two Tales on Resale," CEPR Discussion Papers 6248, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6248
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Höffler, Felix & Schmidt, Klaus M., 2008. "Two tales on resale," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1448-1460, November.
    2. Perry, Martin K., 1989. "Vertical integration: Determinants and effects," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 183-255 Elsevier.
    3. Anderson, Simon P, 1988. "Equilibrium Existence in the Linear Model of Spatial Competition," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 55(220), pages 479-491, November.
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    5. Katz, Michael L., 1989. "Vertical contractual relations," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 655-721 Elsevier.
    6. Bourreau, Marc & Hombert, Johan & Pouyet, Jérôme & Schutz, Nicolas, 2007. "Wholesale Markets in Telecommunications," CEPR Discussion Papers 6224, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
    8. Hamid Hamoudi & María J. Moral, 2005. "Equilibrium existence in the linear model: Concave versus convex transportation costs," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(2), pages 201-219, June.
    9. George J. Stigler, 1951. "The Division of Labor is Limited by the Extent of the Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59, pages 185-185.
    10. Ordover, Janusz & Shaffer, Greg, 2007. "Wholesale access in multi-firm markets: When is it profitable to supply a competitor?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1026-1045, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ioannis N. Pinopoulos, 2017. "Upstream horizontal mergers and vertical integration," Discussion Paper Series 2017_07, Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, revised Aug 2017.
    2. Paul Madden & Mario Pezzino, 2013. "Sports League Quality, Broadcaster TV Rights Bids and Wholesale Regulation of Sports Channels," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1304, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    3. Jullien, Bruno & Reisinger, Markus & Rey, Patrick, 2017. "Vertical Foreclosure and Multi-Segment Competition," TSE Working Papers 17-876, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    4. Inderst, Roman & Valletti, Tommaso, 2011. "Incentives for input foreclosure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(6), pages 820-831, August.
    5. Briglauer Wolfgang & Götz Georg & Schwarz Anton, 2011. "Margin Squeeze in Fixed-Network Telephony Markets -- Competitive or Anticompetitive?," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(4), pages 1-21, December.
    6. Marc Bourreau & Johan Hombert & Jérôme Pouyet & Nicolas Schutz, 2010. "Upstream Competition between Vertically Integrated Firms," Working Papers hal-00440126, HAL.
    7. Corrocher, Nicoletta & Lasio, Laura, 2013. "Diversification strategies in network-based services: The case of mobile virtual network operators," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1110-1123.
    8. Marc Bourreau & Johan Hombert & Jerome Pouyet & Nicolas Schutz, 2011. "Upstream Competition between Vertically Integrated Firms," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(4), pages 677-713, December.
    9. Michiel Bijlsma & Gijsbert Zwart, 2009. "Competition for access; spectrum rights and downstream access in wireless telecommunications," CPB Discussion Paper 123, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    10. Horstmann, Niklas & Krämer, Jan & Schnurr, Daniel, 2015. "Upstream Competition and Open Access Regimes: Experimental Evidence," 26th European Regional ITS Conference, Madrid 2015 127149, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    11. Matsushima, Noriaki & Mizuno, Keizo, 2014. "Competition for access provision: Infrastructure upgrades with spillovers," 25th European Regional ITS Conference, Brussels 2014 101419, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    12. Bourreau, Marc & Cambini, Carlo & Hoernig, Steffen, 2012. "Geographic Access Rules and Investments," CEPR Discussion Papers 9013, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Höffler, Felix & Schmidt, Klaus M., 2008. "Two tales on resale," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1448-1460, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    non-spatial product differentiation; resale regulation; spatial product differentiation; vertical restraints; wholesale;

    JEL classification:

    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L42 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation

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