True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Real Income: Theory and Empirics
I introduce a utility-consistent benchmark for international comparisons of real income, the GAIA (‘Geary-Allen International Accounts’) System. It coincides with the Geary method (which underlies the Penn World Table) when preferences are Leontief and with the EKS method (favoured by OECD) when preferences are homogeneous quadratic. The Geary method seems preferable since it gives a (possibly poor) approximation to a consistent set of international comparisons, whereas the EKS method gives a good approximation to an inconsistent set. An illustrative empirical application, using estimates of a QUAIDS demand system, suggests that both methods impose excessive ‘convergence’ on the data.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2000|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ.|
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
- Chew, Soo Hong, 1983. "A Generalization of the Quasilinear Mean with Applications to the Measurement of Income Inequality and Decision Theory Resolving the Allais Paradox," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(4), pages 1065-92, July.
- Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1997.
"I just ran four million regressions,"
Economics Working Papers
201, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
- Lewbel, Arthur, 1991. "The Rank of Demand Systems: Theory and Nonparametric Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 711-30, May.
- Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
- Moschini, Giancarlo, 1998. "The semiflexible almost ideal demand system," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 349-364, February.
- James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
- Diewert, Erwin, 2007. "Index Numbers," Economics working papers diewert-07-01-03-08-17-23, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 31 Jan 2007.
- Heston, Alan & Summers, Robert, 1996. "International Price and Quantity Comparisons: Potentials and Pitfalls," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 20-24, May.
- Samuelson, Paul A, 1994. "Facets of Balassa-Samuelson Thirty Years Later," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(3), pages 201-26, October.
- Nuxoll, Daniel A, 1994. "Differences in Relative Prices and International Differences in Growth Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1423-36, December.
- W. Erwin Diewert, 1996.
"Axiomatic and Economic Approaches to International Comparisons,"
NBER Working Papers
5559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- W. Erwin Diewert, 1999. "Axiomatic and Economic Approaches to International Comparisons," NBER Chapters, in: International and Interarea Comparisons of Income, Output, and Prices, pages 13-107 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hill, Robert J, 1997. "A Taxonomy of Multilateral Methods for Making International Comparisons of Prices and Quantities," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(1), pages 49-69, March.
- Patrick Honohan, 1997. "Don't Overdo PPP Adjustment of Real Output," Papers WP092, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1975. "Transcendental Logarithmic Utility Functions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 367-83, June.
- J. Peter Neary, 1996. "Theoretical foundations of the "Geary method" for international comparisons of purchasing power and real incomes," Working Papers 199603, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Freixas, Xavier & Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1987. "Engel Curves Leading to the Weak Axiom in the Aggregate," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 515-31, May.
- Deaton, Angus, 1986. "Demand analysis," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1767-1839 Elsevier.
- Samuelson, Paul A, 1984. "Second Thoughts on Analytical Income Comparisons," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 267-78, June.
- Marris, Robin, 1984. "Comparing the Incomes of Nations: A Critique of the International Comparison Project," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 22(1), pages 40-57, March.
- Diewert, W. E. & Wales, T. J., 1988. "A normalized quadratic semiflexible functional form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 327-342, March.
- John Muellbauer, 1975. "Aggregation, Income Distribution and Consumer Demand," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(4), pages 525-543.
- Neary, J-P & Gleeson, B, 1997.
"Comparing the Wealth of Nations : Reference Prices and Multilateral Real Income Indexes,"
97/19, College Dublin, Department of Political Economy-.
- J. Peter Neary & Bríd Gleeson, 1997. "Comparing the wealth of nations : reference prices and multilateral real income indexes," Working Papers 199719, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Kravis, Irving B, 1984. "Comparative Studies of National Incomes and Prices," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 22(1), pages 1-39, March.
- Deaton, Angus S, 1978. "Specification and Testing in Applied Demand Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(351), pages 524-36, September.
- Dowrick, Steve & Quiggin, John, 1997. "True Measures of GDP and Convergence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 41-64, March.
- Moschini, GianCarlo, 1998. "Semiflexible Almost Ideal Demand System, The," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1193, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Samuelson, Paul A & Swamy, S, 1974. "Invariant Economic Index Numbers and Canonical Duality: Survey and Synthesis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 566-93, September.
- Drechsler, Laszlo, 1973. "Weighting of Index Numbers in Multilateral International Comparisons," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 19(1), pages 17-34, March.
- Officer, Lawrence H., 1989. "The national price level: Theory and estimation," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 351-373.
- Prasada Rao, D S & Selvanathan, E Anthony & Pilat, Dirk, 1995. "Generalized Theil-Tornqvist Indices with Applications to International Comparisons of Prices and Real Output," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(2), pages 352-60, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2590. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.