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International Reserves: Facing Model Uncertainty

Listed author(s):
  • Sona Benecka
  • Lubos Komarek

The abundant literature on the competing motives for holding international reserves stresses different factors, giving rise to a problem called model uncertainty. In this paper we search for the most important determinants of reserve holdings using data for 104 countries in 1999–2010 and evaluate their importance using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). We enrich the ongoing empirical discussion by examining the role of financial globalization and monetary policy and by introducing new variables and searching for alternatives to the traditional ones. The results confirm that trade openness and the broad-money-to-GDP ratio are the key determinants with a positive link to the level of reserves. On the other hand, financial development seems to lower the need for reserves.

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File URL: http://www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2014_03.pdf
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Paper provided by Czech National Bank, Research Department in its series Working Papers with number 2014/03.

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Date of creation: Mar 2014
Handle: RePEc:cnb:wpaper:2014/03
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  1. repec:cml:moneta:v:xxxv:y:2013:i:1:p:1-35 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Guillermo Calvo & Alejandro Izquierdo & Rudy Loo-Kung, 2013. "Optimal Holdings of International Reserves: Self-insurance against Sudden Stops," Monetaria, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(1), pages 1-35, January-j.
  3. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1998. "Capital Flows and Capital-Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 1, pages 35-54, November.
  4. Yin-Wong Cheung & Hiro Ito, 2009. "A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis of International Reserves," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(4), pages 447-481.
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  7. Enrique Moral-Benito, 2012. "Determinants of Economic Growth: A Bayesian Panel Data Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 566-579, May.
  8. Carmen Fernandez & Eduardo Ley & Mark F. J. Steel, 2001. "Model uncertainty in cross-country growth regressions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(5), pages 563-576.
  9. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter Garber, 2004. "The Revived Bretton Woods System: The Effects of Periphery Intervention and Reserve Management on Interest Rates & Exchange Rates in Center Countries," NBER Working Papers 10332, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Frenkel, Jacob A & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1981. "Optimal International Reserves: A Stochastic Framework," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(362), pages 507-514, June.
  11. Aizenman, Joshua, 2010. "The Impossible Trinity (aka The Policy Trilemma)," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9k29n6qn, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  12. Krugman, Paul, 1979. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(3), pages 311-325, August.
  13. Mendoza, Ronald U., 2010. "Was the Asian crisis a wake-up call?: Foreign reserves as self-protection," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-19, February.
  14. Kristin Magnussen, 2011. "International Reserve Adequacy in Central America," IMF Working Papers 11/144, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Christian B. Mulder & Matthieu Bussière, 1999. "External Vulnerability in Emerging Market Economies; How High Liquidity Can Offset Weak Fundamentals and the Effects of Contagion," IMF Working Papers 99/88, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Anne-Laure Delatte & Julien Fouquau, 2011. "The determinants of international reserves in the emerging countries: a nonlinear approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(28), pages 4179-4192.
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