IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/h/cnb/ocpubc/geo2019-4.html
   My bibliography  Save this book chapter

International reserves as a mirror of external effects and macroeconomic policies

In: CNB Global Economic Outlook - April 2019

Author

Listed:
  • Sona Benecka
  • Lubos Komarek

Abstract

The article sets out to document the motives that have led central banks (especially inflation targeters) to accumulate international reserves over the last two decades. We start by outlining contemporary theories on the adequate level of international reserves, a topic the economic literature has been addressing since around the second half of the 1960s. We then present evidence of a sharp absolute increase in international reserves around the world and rank the central banks with the highest reserve levels. This ranking changes significantly depending on the ratio selected (reserves are most often expressed as a ratio to GDP, exports, M2 or short-term external debt). We also test the hypothesis that there is a concave relationship between the reserves-to-GDP ratio and economic development as measured by GDP per capita. The article goes on to discuss the various motives that have led to the accumulation of international reserves, most notably external effects (especially in emerging economies) and macroeconomic policies (particularly unconventional ones) in developed countries. We also pay greater attention to the current debate about the level of international reserves and the sensitivity of an economy to changes in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy. In several places in the text, we look more closely at the specific case of the Czech Republic, where unconventional monetary policy led to strong growth in international reserves.

Suggested Citation

  • Sona Benecka & Lubos Komarek, 2019. "International reserves as a mirror of external effects and macroeconomic policies," Occasional Publications - Chapters in Edited Volumes, in: CNB Global Economic Outlook - April 2019, pages 15-22, Czech National Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:cnb:ocpubc:geo2019/4
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cnb.cz/export/sites/cnb/en/monetary-policy/.galleries/geo/geo_2019/gev_2019_04_en.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2010. "Financial Stability, the Trilemma, and International Reserves," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 57-94, April.
    2. Joshua Aizenman, 2013. "The Impossible Trinity — From The Policy Trilemma To The Policy Quadrilemma," Global Journal of Economics (GJE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(01), pages 1-17.
    3. Dan Crowley & J. Scott Davis & Michael Morris, 2018. "Reserve Adequacy Explains Emerging-Market Sensitivity to U.S. Monetary Policy," Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, vol. 13(9), pages 1-4, December.
    4. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Models of currency crises with self-fulfilling features," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1037-1047, April.
    5. Frenkel, Jacob A & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1981. "Optimal International Reserves: A Stochastic Framework," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(362), pages 507-514, June.
    6. Krugman, Paul, 1979. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(3), pages 311-325, August.
    7. Mendoza, Ronald U., 2010. "Was the Asian crisis a wake-up call?: Foreign reserves as self-protection," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-19, February.
    8. Kristin Magnussen, 2011. "International Reserve Adequacy in Central America," IMF Working Papers 2011/144, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Benecká, Soňa & Komarek, Lubos, 2018. "International reserves: Facing model uncertainty," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 523-531.
    2. Joshua Aizenman & Brian Pinto, 2013. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility—Policy Lessons from the Past Two Decades," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 636-653, September.
    3. Zhichao Zhang & Frankie Chau & Li Xie, 2013. "Accumulation of large foreign reserves in China: a behavioural perspective," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 85-108, March.
    4. Giancarlo Marini & Giovanni Piersanti, 2012. "Models of Speculative Attacks and Crashes in International Capital Markets," CEIS Research Paper 245, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 24 Jul 2012.
    5. Steiner, Andreas, 2014. "Reserve accumulation and financial crises: From individual protection to systemic risk," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 126-144.
    6. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2010. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 25, pages 1439-1520, Elsevier.
    7. Aizenman, Joshua, 2019. "A modern reincarnation of Mundell-Fleming's trilemma," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 444-454.
    8. Steiner, Andreas, 2013. "The accumulation of foreign exchange by central banks: Fear of capital mobility?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 409-427.
    9. Scott, Andrew & Uhlig, Harald, 1999. "Fickle investors: An impediment to growth?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 1345-1370, June.
    10. Eijffinger Sylvester C. W. & Goderis Benedikt, 2007. "Currency Crises, Monetary Policy and Corporate Balance Sheets," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 8(3), pages 309-343, August.
    11. Chanelle Duley & Prasanna Gai, 2020. "When the penny doesn't drop - Macroeconomic tail risk and currency crises," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 520, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
    12. Prof.Dr. Cevat GERNI & Doc.Dr. O. Selcuk EMSEN & Dr. M. Kemal DEGER, 2005. "Erken Uyari Sistemlerý Yoluyla Turkiye’Deki Ekonomik Krizlerin Analizi," Istanbul University Econometrics and Statistics e-Journal, Department of Econometrics, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul University, vol. 2(1), pages 39-62, November.
    13. Mohammad Karimi & Marcel‐Cristian Voia, 2019. "Empirics of currency crises: A duration analysis approach," Review of Financial Economics, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 37(3), pages 428-449, July.
    14. Celasun, Oya, 1998. "The 1994 currency crisis in Turkey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1913, The World Bank.
    15. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2011. "Accumulation of reserves and keeping up with the Joneses: The case of LATAM economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 19-31, January.
    16. Marcel Fratzscher, 2003. "On currency crises and contagion," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(2), pages 109-129.
    17. Seghezza, Elena & Morelli, Pierluigi & Pittaluga, Giovanni B., 2017. "Reserve accumulation and exchange rate policy in China: The authoritarian elite's aim of political survival," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 40-51.
    18. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    19. Alfredo Pistelli & Jorge Selaive & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 2008. "Stocks, Flows, and Valuation Effects of Foreign Assets and Liabilities: Do They Matter?," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Kevin Cowan & Sebastián Edwards & Rodrigo O. Valdés & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt- (ed.),Current Account and External Financing, edition 1, volume 12, chapter 7, pages 237-277, Central Bank of Chile.
    20. Andre Cartapanis, 2004. "Le declenchement des crises de change : qu'avons-nous appris depuis dix ans ?," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 97, pages 5-48.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cnb:ocpubc:geo2019/4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jan Babecky). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cnbgvcz.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.