Measuring the Stringency of Land-Use Regulation: The Case of China's Building-Height Limits
This paper develops a new approach for measuring the stringency of a major form of land-use regulation, building-height restrictions, and it applies the method to an extraordinary dataset of land-lease transactions from China. Our theory shows that the elasticity of land price with respect to the oor-area ratio (FAR), an indicator of the allowed building height for the parcel, is a measure of the regulationâ€™s stringency (the extent to which FAR is kept below the free-market level). Using a national sample, estimation that allows this elasticity to be city-specific shows substantial variation in the stringency of FAR regulation across Chinese cities, and additional evidence suggests that stringency depends on certain city characteristics in a predictable fashion. Single-city estimation for the large Beijing subsample, where site characteristics can be added to the regression, indicates that the stringency of FAR regulation varies with certain site characteristics, again in a predictable way (being high near the Tiananmen historical sites). Further results using a different dataset show that FAR limits in Beijing are adjusted in reponse to demand forces created by new subway stops.
|Date of creation:||2016|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich|
Phone: +49 (89) 9224-0
Fax: +49 (89) 985369
Web page: http://www.cesifo-group.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Siqi Zheng & Matthew E. Kahn, 2013.
"Does Government Investment in Local Public Goods Spur Gentrification? Evidence from Beijing,"
Real Estate Economics,
American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 41(1), pages 1-28, March.
- Siqi Zheng & Matthew E. Kahn, 2011. "Does Government Investment in Local Public Goods Spur Gentrification? Evidence from Beijing," NBER Working Papers 17002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bertaud, Alain & Brueckner, Jan K., 2005. "Analyzing building-height restrictions: predicted impacts and welfare costs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 109-125, March.
- Kono, Tatsuhito & Joshi, Kirti Kusum, 2012. "A new interpretation on the optimal density regulations: Closed and open city," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 223-234.
- Hongbin Cai & J. Vernon Henderson & Qinghua Zhang, 2013.
"China's land market auctions: evidence of corruption?,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
RAND Corporation, vol. 44(3), pages 488-521, September.
- Hongbin Cai & J. Vernon Henderson & Qinghua Zhang, 2009. "China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption," NBER Working Papers 15067, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lichtenberg, Erik & Ding, Chengri, 2009.
"Local officials as land developers: Urban spatial expansion in China,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 57-64, July.
- Lichtenberg, Erik & Ding, Chengri, 2008. "Local Officials as Land Developers: Urban Spatial Expansion in China," Working Papers 6834, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
- Xiaolu Gao & Yasushi Asami & Wataru Katsumata, 2006. "Evaluating land-use restrictions concerning the floor area ratio of lots," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 24(4), pages 515-532, August.
- Xiaolu Gao & Yasushi Asami & Wataru Katsumata, 2006. "Evaluating Land-Use Restrictions concerning the Floor Area Ratio of Lots," Environment and Planning C, , vol. 24(4), pages 515-532, August.
- Barr, Jason & Cohen, Jeffrey P., 2014. "The floor area ratio gradient: New York City, 1890–2009," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 110-119.
- Tatsuhito Kono & Takayuki Kaneko & Hisa Morisugi, 2010. "Necessity of minimum floor area ratio regulation: a second-best policy," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 44(3), pages 523-539, June.
- Timothy J. Bartik, 1991. "Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies?," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number wbsle.
- Fu, Yuming & Somerville, C. Tsuriel, 2001. "Site Density Restrictions: Measurement and Empirical Analysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 404-423, March.
- Joshi, Kirti Kusum & Kono, Tatsuhito, 2009. "Optimization of floor area ratio regulation in a growing city," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 502-511, July.
- Edwin S. Mills, 2005. "Why Do We Have Urban Density Controls?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 571-585, September.
- Glaeser, Edward L & Gyourko, Joseph & Saks, Raven, 2005. "Why Is Manhattan So Expensive? Regulation and the Rise in Housing Prices," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(2), pages 331-369, October.
- Li, Hongbin & Zhou, Li-An, 2005. "Political turnover and economic performance: the incentive role of personnel control in China," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(9-10), pages 1743-1762, September.
- Zheng, Siqi & Kahn, Matthew E., 2008. "Land and residential property markets in a booming economy: New evidence from Beijing," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 743-757, March.
- Arnott, Richard J & Lewis, Frank D, 1979. "The Transition of Land to Urban Use," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(1), pages 161-169, February.
- Wheaton, William C., 1998. "Land Use and Density in Cities with Congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 258-272, March.
- Brueckner, Jan K. & Sridhar, Kala Seetharam, 2012. "Measuring welfare gains from relaxation of land-use restrictions: The case of India's building-height limits," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1061-1067. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_5855. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Klaus Wohlrabe)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.