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Outside Earnings, Absence, and Activity: Evidence from Germany Parliamentarians

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  • Felix Arnold
  • Björn Kauder
  • Niklas Potrafke

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Abstract

We examine moonlighting by politicians in Germany. In July 2007, the German Supreme Court adjudicated that members of parliament (MPs) have to publish details of their outside earnings. Using panel data models, we investigate how outside earnings are correlated with absence and parliamentary activity. The results do not indicate that outside earnings are correlated with absence rates and speeches; but they do suggest that outside earnings are somewhat negatively correlated with oral contributions, interpellations, and group initiatives. We propose that the results for Germany do not corroborate evidence on other countries such as Italy because party discipline, institutions, and political cultures differ across countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Felix Arnold & Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke, 2014. "Outside Earnings, Absence, and Activity: Evidence from Germany Parliamentarians," CESifo Working Paper Series 4900, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4900
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    Cited by:

    1. Nastassia Leszczynska, 2017. "Double Hat Politicians: Political Moonlighting in Wallonia," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2017-43, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. repec:eee:poleco:v:59:y:2019:i:c:p:1-20 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Kauder, Björn & Potrafke, Niklas, 2015. "Just hire your spouse! Evidence from a political scandal in Bavaria," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 42-54.
    4. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke & Leonard Thielmann, 2015. "Stell doch einfach Deine Frau ein! Untersuchung der Verwandtenaffäre in Bayern," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 68(01), pages 50-55, January.
    5. Hofer. Katharina, 2016. "Shirk or Work? On How Legislators React to Monitoring," Economics Working Paper Series 1616, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    6. Gavoille, Nicolas, 2018. "Who are the ‘ghost’ MPs? Evidence from the French parliament," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 134-148.
    7. Björn Kauder & Manuela Krause & Niklas Potrafke, 2018. "Electoral cycles in MPs’ salaries: evidence from the German states," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 25(4), pages 981-1000, August.
    8. repec:eee:eecrev:v:103:y:2018:i:c:p:83-107 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Kai Gehring & T. Florian Kauffeldt & Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati, 2015. "Crime, Incentives and Political Effort: A Model and Empirical Application for India," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 170, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    10. Alessandro Fedele & Paolo Naticchioni, 2016. "Moonlighting Politicians: Motivation Matters!," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 17(2), pages 127-156, May.
    11. Felix Arnold & Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke, 2014. "Beeinträchtigen Nebeneinkünfte die politischen Tätigkeiten von Bundestagsabgeordneten?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 67(18), pages 34-39, September.
    12. repec:bla:germec:v:20:y:2019:i:4:p:e600-e617 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke, 2017. "Gibt es Schelte für Bundestagsabgeordnete, die nicht mit ihrer eigenen Partei stimmen?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 70(12), pages 26-29, June.
    14. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke, 2016. "Supermajorities and Political Rent Extraction," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 65-81, February.
    15. repec:bla:jcmkts:v:55:y:2017:i:2:p:368-386 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke, 2019. "Conservative Politicians and Voting on Same‐sex Marriage," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 20(4), pages 600-617, November.
    17. repec:oup:cesifo:v:63:y:2017:i:3:p:317-332. is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke & Alexander Stecher, 2015. "Stell doch einfach Deine Frau an! Die Verwandtenaffäre in Bayern – der Untersuchung zweiter Teil," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 68(20), pages 20-24, October.
    19. Björn Kauder & Niklas Potrafke & Marina Riem, 2017. "Do Parties Punish MPs for Voting Against the Party Line?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 63(3), pages 317-332.
    20. Thomas Braendle & Alois Stutzer, 2017. "Voters and Representatives: How Should Representatives Be Selected?," CREMA Working Paper Series 2017-05, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    moonlighting by politicians; outside earnings; attendance and activity in parliament; good and bad politicians;

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • H11 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Structure and Scope of Government

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