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Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

Author

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  • Pascalis Raimondos-Møller
  • Alan D. Woodland

Abstract

We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Pascalis Raimondos-Møller & Alan D. Woodland, 2011. "Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare," CESifo Working Paper Series 3607, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3607
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    File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/cesifo1_wp3607.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. W. E. Diewert & A. H. Turunen-Red & A. D. Woodland, 1989. "Productivity- and Pareto-Improving Changes in Taxes and Tariffs," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(2), pages 199-215.
    2. Robert W. Staiger & Kyle Bagwell, 1999. "An Economic Theory of GATT," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 215-248, March.
    3. Raimondos-Moller, Pascalis & Woodland, Alan D., 2006. "Non-preferential trading clubs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-91, January.
    4. Ju, Jiandong & Krishna, Kala, 2000. "Welfare and market access effects of piecemeal tariff reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 305-316, August.
    5. Blanchard, Emily J., 2010. "Reevaluating the role of trade agreements: Does investment globalization make the WTO obsolete?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 63-72.
    6. Paolo Epifani & Juliette Vitaloni, 2006. ""GATT-think" with Asymmetric Countries," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, pages 427-444.
    7. A. D. Woodland, 1980. "Direct and Indirect Trade Utility Functions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(5), pages 907-926.
    8. Earl L. Grinols & Peri Silva, 2007. "An enhancement of modern free trade area theory," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(2), pages 219-225, April.
    9. Turunen-Red, Arja H & Woodland, Alan D, 1991. "Strict Pareto-Improving Multilateral Reforms of Tariffs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 1127-1152, July.
    10. Ralph Ossa, 2011. "A "New Trade" Theory of GATT/WTO Negotiations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 119(1), pages 122-152.
    11. Kemp, Murray C. & Wan, Henry Jr., 1976. "An elementary proposition concerning the formation of customs unions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 95-97, February.
    12. Kowalczyk, Carsten & Sjostrom, Tomas, 2000. "Trade as transfers, GATT and the core," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 163-169, February.
    13. Mattoo, Aaditya & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2000. "Reciprocity Across Modes of Supply in the WTO: A Negotiating Formula," CEPR Discussion Papers 2481, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Panagariya, Arvind & Krishna, Pravin, 2002. "On necessarily welfare-enhancing free trade areas," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 353-367, August.
    15. John Kennan & Raymond Riezman, 2013. "Optimal Tariff Equilibria with Customs Unions," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Trade Agreements and Political Economy, chapter 5, pages 53-66 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Christophe Bureau & Sébastien Jean, 2013. "Trade liberalization in the bio-economy: coping with a new landscape," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 44(s1), pages 173-182, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    GATT; reciprocity; fixed world prices;

    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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