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Competitive Rational Expectations Equilibria without Apology


  • Alexander Kovalenkov
  • Xavier Vives


In a standard financial market model with asymmetric information with a finite number N of risk-averse informed traders, competitive rational expectations equilibria provide a good approximation to strategic equilibria as long as N is not too small: equilibrium prices in each situation converge to each other at a rate of 1/N as the market becomes large. The approximation is particularly good when the informationally adjusted risk bearing capacity of traders is not very large. This is not the case if informed traders are close to risk neutral. Both equilibria converge to the competitive equilibrium of an idealized limit continuum economy as the market becomes large at a slower rate of 1/ãN and, therefore, the limit equilibrium need not be a good approximation of the strategic equilibrium in moderately large markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexander Kovalenkov & Xavier Vives, 2008. "Competitive Rational Expectations Equilibria without Apology," CESifo Working Paper Series 2446, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2446

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Xavier Vives, 2014. "On The Possibility Of Informationally Efficient Markets," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 12(5), pages 1200-1239, October.
    2. García, Diego & Urošević, Branko, 2013. "Noise and aggregation of information in large markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 526-549.
    3. Pasquariello, Paolo, 2014. "Prospect Theory and market quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 276-310.
    4. Ou-Yang, Hui & Wu, Weili, 2017. "Net trade and market efficiency in Grossman and Stiglitz (1980)," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 75-85.
    5. Allen, Franklin & Vayanos, Dimitri & Vives, Xavier, 2014. "Introduction to financial economics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 1-14.
    6. Han, Bing & Tang, Ya & Yang, Liyan, 2016. "Public information and uninformed trading: Implications for market liquidity and price efficiency," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 604-643.

    More about this item


    gschizophreniah problem; strategic equilibrium; large markets; information acquisition; free entry; rate of convergence;

    JEL classification:

    • D41 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Perfect Competition
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates


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