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Cointegration Tests of PPP: Do they also Exhibit Erratic Behaviour?


  • Guglielmo Maria Caporale
  • Christoph Hanck


We analyse whether tests of PPP exhibit erratic behaviour (as previously reported by Caporale et al., 2003) even when (possibly unwarranted) homogeneity and proportionality restrictions are not imposed, and trivariate cointegration (stage-three) tests between the nominal exchange rate, domestic and foreign price levels are carried out (instead of stationarity tests on the real exchange rate, as in stage-two tests). We examine the US dollar real exchange rate vis-Ã -vis 21 other currencies over a period of more than a century, and find that stage-three tests produce similar results to those for stage-two tests, namely the former also behave erratically. This confirms that neither of these traditional approaches to testing for PPP can solve the issue of PPP.

Suggested Citation

  • Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Christoph Hanck, 2006. "Cointegration Tests of PPP: Do they also Exhibit Erratic Behaviour?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1811, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1811

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
    2. Ploberger, Werner & Kramer, Walter, 1996. "A trend-resistant test for structural change based on OLS residuals," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 175-185, January.
    3. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Pittis, Nikitas, 2002. "Unit Roots versus Other Types of Time Heterogeneity, Parameter Time Dependence and Superexogeneity," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(3), pages 207-223, April.
    4. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
    5. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1985. "International capital mobility and crowding-out in the U.S. economy: imperfect integration of financial markets or of goods markets?," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, pages 33-74.
    6. Froot, Kenneth A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 32, pages 1647-1688 Elsevier.
    7. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
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    10. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Mario Cerrato, 2006. "Panel data tests of PPP: a critical overview," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1-2), pages 73-91.
    11. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Pittis, Nikitas & Sakellis, Panayiotis, 2003. "Testing for PPP: the erratic behaviour of unit root tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 277-284, August.
    12. Lothian, James R & Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Real Exchange Rate Behavior: The Recent Float from the Perspective of the Past Two Centuries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(3), pages 488-509, June.
    13. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S, 1993. "Finite-Sample Sizes of Johansen's Likelihood Ration Tests for Conintegration," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(3), pages 313-328, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Christoph Hanck, 2010. "Are PPP tests erratically behaved? Some panel evidence," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 203-221.
    2. Georgios Loukopoulos & Dimitrios Antonopoulos, 2015. "Purchasing Power Parity: A Unit Root, Cointegration and VAR Analysis in Emerging and Advanced Countries," Business and Economic Research, Macrothink Institute, vol. 5(1), pages 262-279, June.

    More about this item


    Purchasing Power Parity (PPP); real exchange rate; cointegration; stationarity; parameter instability;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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